СТАТЬИ, ОПУБЛИКОВАННЫЕ В РОССИЙСКИХ И ЗАРУБЕЖНЫХ ИЗДАНИЯХ, ОТРАЖАЮЩИЕ ОСНОВНЫЕ РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ ИНСТИТУТА






Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в базу реферативной информации Web of Science, Scopus

  • Gorbunova E. Large-Scale Explosion and Induced Seismicity: Geological, Structural, and Hydrogeological Impacts
    Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2021 , p. 1223–1234

    This article presents the results of geological, structural, and hydrogeological investigations carried out before and after a large-scale explosion of an object located within the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The obtained data are compared with published information on aftershock emissions registered in an epicentral area after an explosion. Zones with irreversibly changed mechanical and filtrational parameters of geological media are compared with a spatiotemporal distribution of high-amplitude aftershocks in plan and cross-sectional views. The cone of depression formed in the potentiometric surface coincides with the area of registered microseismic events. The general trend of decreasing microseismicity intensity induced by underground large-scale explosion is synchronic with stabilization of the hydrogeodynamic situation.

  • Ostapchuk A., Morozova K., Markov V., Pavlov D., Popov M. Acoustic Emission Reveals Multiple Slip Modes on a Frictional Fault
    FRONTIERS IN EARTH SCIENCE, 2021 , p. 1-16

    The spectrum of fault slip modes spans a continuum from fast ruptures to slow slip events. The nucleation of a certain slip mode is governed by the frictional heterogeneity of fault interface and the rheological fault stiffness. There is a mounting evidence that a single fault can host multiple slip modes. In laboratory experiments we study acoustic emission (AE) initiated by a sliding frictional fault and focus our attention on gouge-filled faults hosting multiple slip modes. Deformation experiments were performed on a slider model setup with a precise control of mechanical parameters and monitoring the acoustic signal in the frequency range of 20-80 kHz. We have shown that the cumulative AE energy linearly depends on block displacement. Besides that, there is a high inverse correlation (-0.94) between fault friction and b-value of frequency-amplitude distribution of AE in the performed experiments. Provided that velocity weakening is specific for the fault interface, the self-organization of a gouge-filled fault at the micro scale is the key parameter that controls the frictional behavior of fault hosting multiple slip modes. Resting on a quantitative categorization of AE waveforms, two AE subpopulations have been distinguished. One of them manifests as AEs with harsh onsets. The second one exhibits a gradual amplitude rise and tremor-like waveforms. A longer duration of the intergrain rupture is specific for the second AE subpopulation. During a laboratory seismic cycle, the first AE subpopulation retains parameters, while the second one exhibits a pronounced cyclic recurrence of b-value. The b-value of the second subpopulation gradually decreases before slip events and recovers after them. Two AE subpopulations, probably, point to the coexistence of two dynamic subsystems. The revealed precursory changes of AE subpopulations are common for the entire spectrum of slip modes. We speculate on the unity of underlying mechanisms of different slip modes.

  • Shuvalov V.V. Release of Matter into the Atmosphere During the Fall of Ten-Kilometer Asteroids into the Ocean
    SOLAR SYSTEM RESEARCH, 2021 , p. 97-105

    The results of numerical modeling of the vertical fall of ten-kilometer asteroids onto a solid surface and into an ocean with a depth of 1 to 7 km are presented. The calculations obtained the maximum masses of water and soil emitted into the atmosphere, as well as the masses of water and soil remaining in the atmosphere 30 minutes after the impact. It is concluded that that when asteroids about ten kilometers in size fall into the ocean, the impact on the Earth's atmosphere will, apparently, be no less strong than when asteroids fall on land.

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A. Variations of Electrical Characteristics of the Surface Atmosphere during Magnetic Storms
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES , 2021, vol. 497, No. 1, p. 246-251

    Variations in the electric field and atmospheric current in the surface atmosphere at middle latitudes during 58 strong magnetic storms that occurred from 2016 to 2019 are examined based on instrumental observations made by the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of the Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences (MHV). It is shown that geomagnetic disturbances characterized by a station magnetic activity K-index exceeding five are accompanied by changes in the vertical component of the Earth's electric field. It is found that the changes have different patterns: sometimes a bay-like increase/decrease in the electric field and sometimes a sign-alternating increase in the magnitude of the electric field. In general, the range of electric field variations varies from 5 to 580 V/m. At the same time, magnetic storm periods are characterized by greater atmospheric current variations the magnitude of which goes up to 80 pA/m(2). The findings presented enrich the database on these phenomena and may be useful in improving existing models of interaction and transformation of geophysical fields as well as in developing new ones.

  • Bekker S.Z., Ryakhovsky I.A., Korsunskaya J.A.   Modeling of the lower ionosphere during solar X‐ray flares of different classes
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2021 , p. e2020JA028767

    This study presents the results obtained from modeling the lower ionosphere response to C-, M- and X-class solar X-ray flares. This model is based on a 5-component scheme for the ionization-recombination cycle of the ionospheric D-region. Input parameters for the plasma-chemical model under different heliogeophysical conditions corresponding to selected X-ray flares were determined by using data received from the AURA, SDO, and GOES satellites. Verification of the obtained results was carried out with use of ground-based radiophysical measurements taken at the geophysical observatory Mikhnevo. The results obtained from a comparison of the calculated and experimental radio wave amplitude variations along six European very low frequency (VLF) paths show that the average normalized root mean square error is similar to 7%, 14%, and 18% for C-, M-, and X-class flares, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the verification results for the VLF signal amplitude show good predictive capability of the model built for describing weak and moderate ionospheric disturbances.

  • M. Van Ginneken, S. Goderis, N. Artemieva, V. Debaille, S. Decrée, R. P. Harvey, K. A. Huwig, L. Hecht, S. Yang, F. E. D. Kaufmann, B. Soens, M. Humayun, F. Van Maldeghem, M. J. Genge, P. Claeys A large meteoritic event over Antarctica ca. 430 ka ago inferred from chondritic spherules from the Sør Rondane Mountains
    SCIENCE ADVANCES , 2021, vol. 7 , p. 1-10

    Large airbursts, the most frequent hazardous impact events, are estimated to occur orders of magnitude more frequently than crater-forming impacts. However, finding traces of these events is impeded by the difficulty of identifying them in the recent geological record. Here, we describe condensation spherules found on top of Walnumfjellet in the Sor Rondane Mountains, Antarctica. Affinities with similar spherules found in EPICA Dome C and Dome Fuji ice cores suggest that these particles were produced during a single-asteroid impact ca. 430 thousand years (ka) ago. The lack of a confirmed crater on the Antarctic ice sheet and geochemical and O-18-poor oxygen isotope signatures allow us to hypothesize that the impact particles result from a touchdown event, in which a projectile vapor jet interacts with the Antarctic ice sheet. Numerical models support a touchdown scenario. This study has implications for the identification and inventory of large cosmic events on Earth.

  • Galaktionov I.V., Kudryashov A.V., Nikitin A.N., Rukosuev A.L., Samarkin V.V., Sheldakova Y.V. Features of FPGA Using in a Fast Adaptive Optical System
    Springer Proceedings in Physics, 2021, vol. 258 , p. 71-74

    Fast adaptive optical system usually used in atmosphere tasks—for wavefront correction of the laser beam passed through a turbulent atmosphere. As a rule, the frequency of waveform distortions is about 100 Hz (roughly). Consequently, the frequency of discreet system should be about 1500 frames per second. Achieving such performance is possible by FPGA using for full closed-loop cycle: image receiving from wavefront sensor, voltages array for deformable mirror calculation the and provision fast applying these voltages to deformable mirror. Main aspects of FPGA using to minimize the whole cycle of adaptive optical system are considered.

  • Kalenkov S.G., Kalenkov G.S. Registration of digital holograms by means of resonant phase-shifting
    JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION, 2021, vol. 38 , p. 7-10

    The method and corresponding optical scheme for the registration and reconstruction of digital volume holograms are considered. It is shown that a set of digital holograms recorded with a scanning reference beam makes it possible to reconstruct the complex amplitude of the object field. The proposed method for registering digital holograms is considered a digital analog of Denisyuk's holography. In particular, a condition is obtained connecting the number of steps (number of holograms) with the quantity of the phase step, when the background and conjugate image are eliminated after the reconstruction procedure of an object field according to the suggested algorithm. Experimental results are presented validating the proposed approach

  • Gavrilov, B.G., Poklad, Y.V., Rybnov, Y.S, Ryakhovsky I.A., Sanina I.A Geomagnetic Effects of Remote Earthquakes
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2021, vol. 61 , p. 108-116

    The paper presents the results of a study of the relationship of seismic events with geomagnetic disturbances arising from the acoustic impact on the lower ionosphere, which are caused by vibrations of the Earth's surface at distances of several thousand kilometers from the earthquake source. The measurements were carried out at Mikhnevo Observatory, which is equipped with an instrumental complex, including seismic, acoustic, electromagnetic, and ionospheric means of observation. It is also equipped with a time-reference system that uses GPS receivers, which ensures an accuracy of the measurement data synchronization of no worse than 20 ns. The regularities of the formation of atmospheric and geomagnetic effects of distant earthquakes and the dependence of the time of their occurrence on the distance to the seismic source are shown on the example of five seismic events. It is demonstrated that the difference in the nature and time of the occurrence of geomagnetic pulsations associated with the impact of acoustic waves on the ionosphere differ from the signals caused by the seismomagnetic effect.

  • V. Toporovsky, A. Kudryashov, V. Samarkin, A. Panich, A. Sokallo, A. Malykhin, A. Skrylev, J. Sheldakova Small-aperture stacked-array deformable mirror made of the piezoceramic combs
    Proc. SPIE 11672, 2021 , p. 1167215

    Stacked-array deformable mirror is one of the most popular tools for correction of wavefront aberrations. We manufactured the stacked-array deformable mirror with small diameter by using piezoceramic combs with few actuators on them. In this case the aperture of mirror will be equal to 30 mm. The stroke of such mirror would be about 5 microns. The thickness of the mirror substrate is 1 mm. Developed deformable mirrors will be suitable for fast adaptive optical systems for optical radiation transferring through turbulent atmosphere tasks.

  • A.L. Rukosuev, V.N. Belousov, A.N. Nikitin, Yu.V. Sheldakova, A.V. Kudryashov, V.A. Bogachev, M.V. Volkov, S.G. Garanin, F.A. Starikov Wavefront correction of laser beam distorted by fan heater turbulence using an adaptive optical system with a frequency of 2000 Hz
    Proc. SPIE 11678, 2021 , p. 116780P

    The results of experiments conducted on a laboratory setup of a fast adaptive optical system based on the use of FPGA as the main control element and a bimorph mirror as a wavefront corrector are presented. The adaptive system bandwidth ranged from a dozen Hertz to 2,000 Hertz. For independent control of the quality of correction the intensity distribution in the far field was recorded. It is shown that for a good correction of the wavefront the system bandwidth should be an order of magnitude higher than the upper boundary of the spectrum of wavefront distortions caused by turbulence. A comparison of the model and experimental data is also presented.

  • I. Galaktionov, J. Sheldakova, V. Toporovsky, V. Samarkin, A. Kudryashov Bimorph vs stacked actuator deformable mirror for laser beam focusing through a moderately scattering medium
    Proc. SPIE 11672, 2021 , p. 1167214

    Bimorph and stacked actuator deformable mirrors were used to increase the efficiency of focusing of partially coherent laser radiation propagated through the scattering suspension that was equivalent to the middle-density fog layer with the length ranging from 300–500 meters up to 5 kilometers. We used Shack-Hartmann sensor to measure the averaged wavefront distortions and CCD camera to estimate the intensity distribution of the focal spot in the far-field. Numerical and experimental investigations of focusing improvement demonstrated that it is possible to increase the peak intensity of the focal spot by more than 60 %.

  • A. Nikitin, I. Galaktionov, J. Sheldakova, A. Kudryashov, V. Samarkin, A. Rukosuev, V. Toporovsky Focusing laser beam through pinhole using high-resolution stacked-actuator deformable mirror
    Proc. SPIE 11672, 2021 , p. 116720W

    The article discusses the use of stacked-actuator adaptive mirrors to improve the focusing of laser radiation. The criterion of focusing efficiency is the fraction of the energy of the laser radiation passing through the pinhole located in the focal plane of the focusing lens.

  • A. Kudryashov, A. Alexandrov, I. Galaktionov, E. Khazanov, A. Kochetkov, A. Kotov, S. Perevalov, V. Samarkin, A. Shaykin, A. Soloviev 240-mm bimorph deformable mirror for wavefront correction at the PEARL facility
    Proc. SPIE 11672, 2021 , p. 116720V

    Adaptive system for wavefront correction based on 240-mm bimorph deformable mirror and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is presented. The dynamic characteristics of the deformable mirror and the performance of the wavefront correction in various operating modes of the PEARL facility as well as the features of phase distortion compensation in a single-shot generation regime are studied. An improvement in the quality of focusing that led to an increase in the Strehl ratio to 0.6 is demonstrated.

  • Riabova S.A., Shalimov S.L. On the Geomagnetic Variations Observed on the Earth’s Surface in the Period Range of Planetary Waves
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2021, vol. 57 , p. 46-53

    The spectra of geomagnetic variations calculated in the period range close to planetary waves-5, 10, and 16 days-are analyzed. The records of the geomagnetic field at the Geophysical Observatory "Mikhnevo" of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences are used. Spectral estimation based on parametric approach is carried out for the winter and summer periods of 2009 (low solar activity) and 2015 (high solar activity). For the first time, it is established that the harmonics directly related to the manifestation of the atmospheric planetary waves in the entire period range from 4 to 17 days are only observed in winter and, irrespective of solar activity; the changes in the atmospheric pressure are about a month ahead of the changes in the geomagnetic field. In the spectra of geomagnetic variations in the period range of 4-17 days, the harmonics of the 27-day geomagnetic periodicity and the harmonics associated with their modulation by the 11-year solar cycle, annual and semiannual variations are revealed. In the spectra for the period range from 12 to 17 days, harmonics with periods close to tidal waves \M-f and M-sf are identified.

  • Usoltseva O.A., Ovtchinnikov V.M., Krasnoshchekov D.N. The Peculiarities of the Earth’s Outer-to-Inner Core Transition Zone from the Characteristics of PKIIKP and PKP c-dif Waves
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2021, vol. 57 , p. 84-97

    The structure of seismic wavefield at distances close to antipodal is analyzed using two numerical methods-DSM and AXISEM-for calculating full waveforms. The obtained empirical estimates of the amplitude ratio of PKIIKP and PKIKP phases indicate that the S-wave velocity in the upper 40 km of the inner core may not be higher than 3.1 km/s. The properties of the PKPc-dif waves suggest a lower P-wave velocity in the lower 100 km of the outer core.

  • Spivak A.A., Rybnov Y.S. Acoustic Effects of Strong Earthquakes
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2021, vol. 57 , p. 37-45

    The results of instrumental observations of acoustic effects from a number of strong earthquakes in Albania, Greece, Iran, and Turkey with magnitudes from 5.1 to 6.9 are presented. The observations were carried out at three sites-at the Geophysical observatory "Mikhnevo" (54.94 degrees N; 37.73 degrees E), at the Center for Geophysical Monitoring in Moscow (CGM) (55.70 degrees N; 37.57 degrees E) of the Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and at the observation site in Zvenigorod, Moscow region (55.69 degrees N; 36.77 degrees E). This observation geometry provided the directions to the sources of acoustic perturbations. It is shown that earthquakes with the sources located at distances from similar to 1845 to similar to 2815 km from recording points cause perturbations in the atmosphere in the form of acoustic oscillations in infrasound range propagating in the stratospheric waveguide and in the form of acoustic oscillations caused by seismic waves. The characteristic periods of the acoustic signals caused by the earthquakes are presented. The energies of the acoustic source and the earthquake are estimated from the spectral characteristics of infrasonic signals propagating in the stratospheric waveguide.

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A., Kharlamov V.A. Manifestation of the Quintet of the Fundamental Spheroidal Mode 0S2 of Earth’s Free Oscillations in Electromagnetic Variations at the Mikhnevo Observatory
    , 2021 , p. 257-263

    In this work, we study the splitting of the lowest frequency 0S2 of the Earth’s free oscillations in the Earth’s electromagnetic field during large earthquakes. The work analyzes the results of electromagnetic monitoring at the Mikhnevo geophysical observatory of Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences (54.96° N, 37.77° E), carried out using a LEMI-008 magnetometer (magnetic field components) and INEP fluxometer (vertical component of electric field). The estimates of the 0S2 singlet frequencies, obtained from experimental data on the detection of magnetic and electric fields, are determined with sufficiently high accuracy and have values rather close to theoretical ones. The theoretical frequencies are calculated by the Earth model 1066A.

  • Riabova S.A. Geomagnetic Diurnal Variation at Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory
    , 2021 , p. 389-398

    In the course of this study, we used the results of geomagnetic field monitoring at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Moscow region, Mikhnevo village (its geographic coordinates are 54.96° N, 37.77° E). It has been established that for all three components the diurnal geomagnetic variations show a similar tendency, that is, two hours before the climax of the Sun, a minimum is observed, and approximately three and a half hours after noon, a maximum is observed. In addition, the time of the beginning of the quiet interval approximately coincides with the time of sunset, and the time of the end of the quiet interval is close to the time of sunrise. The latest beginning of the quiet interval is observed in summer, and the earliest in winter, this result is to some extent predictable, because the start of a quiet interval approximately corresponds to the time of sunset. Spectral analysis of time series of geomagnetic field monitoring demonstrates the presence of variations with periods of 6, 8, 12, and 24 h.

  • Spivak A.A., Loktev D.N., RybnovYu.S., Kharlamov V.A. Acoustic Noise in Moscow during the Covid-19 Quarantine Period in 2020
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2021, vol. 496, No. 1, p. 63-65

    This paper addresses the results of instrumental observation of acoustic oscillations in the atmosphere above the city of Moscow during the COVID-19 quarantine period. Instrumental observations made by the Geophysical Monitoring Center (GMC) at the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics (IGD), Russian Academy of Sciences, show that the quarantine-related decrease in production activity caused significant changes in the amplitude and spectral characteristics of acoustic noise above the city, as compared to the long-term averages. During the quarantine period, the amplitude of the main spectral components and the average amplitude of acoustic noise decreased by more than two times. The diurnal variation of the amplitude of noise caused by production activities in the daytime was much less evident. Our findings can be useful in determining the characteristics of technogenic noise sources and assessing its contribution to the total acoustic noise level of the city.

  • Kocharyan G.G., Ostapchuk A.A., Pavlov D.V. Fault Sliding Modes—Governing, Evolution and Transformation
    , 2021 , p. 323-358

    A brief summary of fundamental results obtained in the IDG RAS on the mechanics of sliding along faults and fractures is presented. Conditions of emergence of different sliding regimes, and regularities of their evolution were investigated in the laboratory, as well as in numerical and field experiments. All possible sliding regimes were realized in the laboratory, from creep to dynamic failure. Experiments on triggering the contact zone have demonstrated that even a weak external disturbance can cause failure of a “prepared” contact. It was experimentally proven that even small variations of the percentage of materials exhibiting velocity strengthening and velocity weakening in the fault principal slip zone may result in a significant variation of the share of seismic energy radiated during a fault slip event. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the radiation efficiency of an earthquake and the fault slip mode are governed by the ratio of two parameters—the rate of decrease of resistance to shear along the fault and the shear stiffness of the enclosing massif. The ideas developed were used to determine the principal possibility to artificially transform the slidding regime of a section of a fault into a slow deformation mode with a low share of seismic wave radiation.

  • Besedina A.N., Kabychenko N.V., Volosov S.G., Korolev S.A. Instrumental Circuit for Extending the Frequency Responses of Short-Period Sensors on the Example of the SM-3KV Seismometer
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2021, vol. 57, No. 3, p. 249-258

    The application of special sensor correction methods may allow the use of short-period seismometers with an extended frequency range in the absence of broadband sensors to solve a wide range of problems associated with recording low-frequency signals. The paper considers an instrumental correction circuit that uses integrating elements to broaden the frequency range of the SM-3KV seismometer to the low-frequency region. In laboratory conditions, the modified seismometer was calibrated and the device was tested on microseismic noise, explosion, and earthquake records. Our analysis of microseismic noise shows the possibility of using this device for recording and analyzing microseismic noise at frequencies above 0.07 Hz. Analysis of explosion and earthquake records demonstrated that the circuit can be used for seismic monitoring, taking into account the features of the frequency and phase responses of the modified seismometers.

  • Sanina I.A., Konstantinovskaya N.L., Nesterkina, M.A., Gabsatarova, I.P. Identification of the Nature of Seismic Events that Occurred in the East European Platform as Recorded by the Mikhnevo Small-Aperture Seismic Array at Regional Distances
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2021, vol. 57, No. 1, p. 38-54

    This article summarizes the observations of the Mikhnevo small-aperture seismic array (SSA) for seismic events within the East European Platform based on analysis of a large number of experimental data. A method for recognizing earthquakes and short-lived group blasts, which is based on discriminating the nature of slope for the curve of distribution of the ratio between amplitude spectra of P and Lg waves log(A(P)/A(Lg)) relative to the frequency of oscillation, is proposed. It is shown that the curve has a certain trend, whose slope is different for explosions and earthquakes. A new criterion, that is, the sign of the coefficient in the equation that connects the values of log(A(P)/A(Lg)) and the frequency, is proposed. A negative trend with the increase in frequency is typical of short shots, while a positive trend is typical of earthquakes. The method has been tested based on the records of 405 industrial explosions and 24 earthquakes, with epicenters located 350-900 km from the Mikhnevo SSA.

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в базу реферативной информации Web of Science, Scopus

  • Riabova S.A., Shalimov S.L. Features of geomagnetic variations in the period range from 12 to 17 days according to the Mikhnevo observatory data
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115607J

    Using the results of geomagnetic monitoring at the Mikhnevo geophysical observatory and spectral analysis methods, the spectral harmonics of geomagnetic variations were studied in the period range from 12 to 17 days. We have highlighted: harmonics associated with a variation in solar activity; harmonics due to the modulation of shorter-period variations by the long-period ones; harmonics close to periods of tidal waves, and harmonics close to the period of the atmospheric planetary 16-day wave. Comparative analysis of the spectral composition in summer and winter for a period of low solar activity were carried out.

  • Riabova S.A., Rybnov Y.S., Romanovsky Y.O., Spivak A.A., Kharlamov V.A. Geophysical effects in the surface atmosphere caused by earthquake in Turkey on January 24, 2020
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115607K

    We consider the disturbances of the magnetic field, electrical characteristics, and microbaric variations in the surface atmosphere caused by a strong earthquake that occurred in Turkey on January 24, 2020. The effects were recorded at the Mikhnevo observatory of Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences which is located at distance of ~ 1900 km from the earthquake focus. It is shown that the acoustic effects accompanying the earthquake are caused by two sources: acoustic signal produced by arrival of seismic waves and acoustic signal propagating in the stratospheric waveguide. Using the data of the Mikhnevo observatory, we present the amplitudes of the induced variations in the electric field and atmospheric current. Also geomagnetic variations at different distances from the earthquake focus are presented.

  • Riabova S.A., Romanovsky Y.O., Spivak A.A. Remote electrical effects of the explosive stage of the Stromboli (Italy) volcano eruption on 3 July, 2019
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115607N

    Using the results of instrumental observations, it was shown that the explosion of the Stromboli volcano on July 3, 2019, caused variations in the atmospheric electric field and the amplitude of the atmospheric current at the Mikhnevo geophysical observatory and at the Geophysical Monitoring in Moscow of IDG RAS located at distances of ~ 2450 km and ~ 2500 km from the source, respectively. Anomalous variations in the electric field were also recorded during the period of arrival of the acoustic signal at electric monitoring points.

  • Spivak A.A., Rybnov Y.S., Riabova S.A., Romanovsky Y.O., Soloviev S.P., Kharlamov V.A. Geophysical effects of large fires in the Moscow region
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115600V

    Based on the analysis of instrumental observational data, it was shown that large fires manifest themselves in local variations of the electric field and the amplitude of acoustic vibrations. Above the fire area, the formation of the zone with altered thermodynamic characteristics causes the formation of acoustic-gravitational waves with a Brent-Väisälä frequency during the most intense burning. The examples of the strong fires in Moscow are considered.

  • Tikhotskiy S. A., Dubinya N.V., Nachev V. A. A New Approach to Estimation of the Rheological Properties of Seafloor Sediments during the Sampling Process
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2020, vol. 495, No. 2, p. 880-883

    This paper is devoted to the problem of studying the rheological properties of seafloor sediments during the sampling process with the use of a gravity corer. The problem of gravity corer penetration through the soil with a complicated visco-elasto-plastic rheology is considered. Estimation of the mechanical properties of bottom sediments is among the most important problems emerging during the exploration of the hydrocarbon fields located on the Arctic shelf. Proper evaluation of the reaction of infrastructure objects to external effects (earthquakes, large waves) is needed to reduce the risks of serious accidents on the shelf. This paper presents a new approach to determining the parameters governing the stability of the infrastructure: static elastic moduli of seafloor sediments and their plastic and viscous properties. The dynamics of gravity corer penetration, with a measurable dependency of its acceleration, acts as a source of information regarding these parameters. The inverse problem of reconstructing the mechanical properties of seafloor sediments from the characteristics of this dependency has to be solved. This paper presents the results of solving the corresponding direct problem with the use of the finite element method. The possibility to estimate the mechanical properties of seafloor sediments from data on parameters such as time passed until the complete cessation of the tube sampler and the depth of its penetration is demonstrated.

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A. Acoustic, Electrical and Magnetic Effects of Stromboli Volcano Eruption (July-August, 2019)
    EAGE 2020 Annual Conference & Exhibition Online, 2020, vol. 2020 , p. 1-5

    Today it is necessary to continue to improve the methods of remote monitoring of volcanic processes, including the analysis of anomalies in geophysical fields caused by volcanic eruption. The presented research is aimed at analyzing geophysical effects accompanying eruption of Stromboli volcano in the summer of 2019. We researched variations in acoustic vibrations, geomagnetic field and electrical characteristics of near-surface layer of the Earth’s atmosphere. As initial data, we used results of observations of geophysical fields at Geophysical observatory «Mikhnevo» and at Center for geophysical monitoring of Moscow of Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences; results of magnetic monitoring at a number of Intermagnet network magnetic observatories. We found that, along with the known local effects accompanying strong volcanic activity (emission of heated material, formation of an air wave and lava flow etc.), disturbances of physical fields at significant distances from the volcano are recorded. It is important to note that variations in the magnetic field and electrical characteristics of the atmosphere are observed not only during a volcanic eruption at its various stages, but also during periods of disturbance of the atmosphere by an acoustic signal arriving at the registration point caused by volcanic activity.

  • Besedina A.N., Kishkina S.B., Kocharyan G.G., Ryakhovsky I.A. Microseismic Noise before and after Strong Earthquakes: Case Study of Chilean Subduction Zone
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2020, vol. 56, No. 2, p. 151-161

    In this work, we study the parameters of microseismic noise in the vicinity of the Chilean subduction zone in order to detect oscillations of a block-fault system, similar to those identified by processing the results of the previous laboratory experiment. The analysis is based on the data recorded by the broadband seismic stations of the international seismic network IRIS. We calculated the spectral parameters of microseismic noise before and after several earthquakes. It is established that before the earthquakes with M-w >= 8, the calculated value of spectral centroid decreases by 0.12-0.26 Hz. The decrease in the value of spectral centroid in the range from 0.008 to 0.45 Hz can be as long as up to two days. The proposed approach can be a new instrument useful for real-time monitoring of active faults of various scales.

  • Besedina A.N,. Kabychenko N.V., Pavlov D.V., Volosov S.G. Instrumental Methods for Extending the Amplitude-Frequency Responses of a Geophone
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2020, vol. 56, No. 2, p. 121-133

    To solve various engineering problems, it is often necessary to record signals in the 0.1-2000 Hz range. The lower limit of this range is beyond the operating band of geophones. This article considers extending of geophone frequency responses in two ways: multiplication of the transfer functions and introduction of negative resistance. The applicability limits of these methods are estimated. The upper limit of the velocity recorded by the geophone is determined by the gap in which the coil is shifted relative to the sensor frame. The lower limit depends on the total instrument noise of the measurement channel, the main contribution to which is the Brownian noise of the mechanical oscillatory system and the noise of the measuring circuit. A prototype was constructed using multiplication of the transfer functions. Laboratory measurements on a shaking table and microseismic noise recordings demonstrated that the modified geophone operates as a velocity sensor with an eigenfrequency of 2 Hz. This value depends on the microseismic conditions of where of the measurement system is placed. Recording seismicity with the modified geophone made it possible to record massive blasts in mines and quarries in the frequency range up to 2 Hz. Thus, the research demonstrates that the modified geophone can be used to monitor local and regional seismicity as a counterpart to short-period seismometers.

  • Ostapchuk A.A., Morozova K.G. On the Mechanism of Laboratory Earthquake Nucleation Highlighted by Acoustic Emission
    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 2020, vol. 10, No. 1, p. 7245

    Dynamics of granular media is the key to understanding behavior of many natural systems. In this work we concentrate on studying regularities of deformation of a gouge-filled fault. Confined granular layer - model fault - subjected to an external stress may display sudden slip owing to rearrangement of the granular layer. In nature fast slip along a fault results in an earthquake. To understand fault behavior better, we have conducted a comprehensive analysis of acoustic emission (AE) data that accompany stick-slip in granular media. Here we reveal and trace the emergence of two populations of AE. The first one is characterized by a waveform with a harsh onset, while the second one exhibits a gradual amplitude rise and a tremor-like waveform. During a regular stick-slip the statistical properties of the first population remains intact. The second one is very sensitive to alterations of stress conditions, and its scaling parameters correlate with the change of mechanical characteristics of the fault. Probably, AE populations were identified corresponding to two gouge-filled fault subsystems - a load-bearing granular network and an ensemble of relatively unloaded grains in the granular layer. The detected regularities point to a compound self-organization processes in fault zones and suggest that the final stage of earthquake preparation can be revealed in analyzing the scaling characteristics of seismic-acoustic data.

  • Ostapchuk, A.A., Pavlov, D.V., Ruzhich, V.V., Gubanova A.E Seismic-Acoustics of a Block Sliding Along a Fault
    PURE AND APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2020, vol. 177, No. 6, p. 2641-2651

    Frictional instability is the most likely mechanism of shallow earthquakes. For better understanding fault behavior we have conducted field experiments on shear deformation of a model fault. This study has focused on revealing the seismic-acoustic signatures of fault behavior. The entire spectrum of sliding regimes has been realized in the course of 1-m scale experiments-from a stable creep to a regular stick-slip, and their seismic-acoustic characteristics were investigated. It is shown that seismic pulses with characteristic frequencies less than 500 Hz are emitted only during slip events. The acoustic emission (AE) is observed both during slip events and at the stage of their preparation. Statistical analysis has shown that the AE distribution is generally a superposition of a power law distribution for low-energy pulses and a peak-like distribution for the largest pulses. The distribution with a characteristic peak prevails in regular stick-slip, while (quasi)stable creep is characterized by the power law distribution over the entire range of amplitudes. Both distributions-"with peak" and "without peak"-are observed for irregular sliding regime (random slip events with various amplitudes). Applying the nonlinear Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm to the analysis of time-series of AE data has allowed to rank the fault sliding regimes. The calculated correlation dimension characterizes the dynamics of the fault. The highest dimension is typical for stable sliding. A decrease of the correlation dimension indicates an enhanced probability of high-amplitude slip events. Nucleation of largest slip events is observed for the regular stick-slip with the least correlation dimension.

  • Leonov M.G., Kocharyan G.G., Revuzhenko A.F., Lavrikov S.V. TECTONICS OF ROCK LOOSENING: GEOLOGICAL DATA AND PHYSICS OF THE PROCESS
    GEODYNAMICS & TECTONOPHYSICS, 2020, vol. 11, No. 3, p. 491-521

    Block-granular geological objects and rock volumetric mobility indicators are described. The mechanisms of structural and material reworking of rocks are considered in relation to the formation of a discrete tectonic structure of rocks and changes in the shapes of the geological bodies, which take place without rupturing the rock surfaces bounding these bodies and provide for the volumetric tectonic flow of solid rocks. Based on the study of natural objects and their comparison with the theoretical and experimental data on solid mechanics and geomechanics, it is suggested that one of the triggers for the volumetric disintegration of rock masses is rock fatigue damage (a fundamental phenomenon of solid-state physics). The disintegrated rocks behave according to the laws of mechanics of granular materials and mesomechanics. This study is of both theoretical and pragmatic importance as it contributes to the understanding of the regional geological features and provides new knowledge on the formation of crystalline protrusions known among the main hydrocarbon reservoirs within the basements of various geologic structures.

  • Gerke K.M., Sizonenko T.O., Karsanina M.V., Lavrukhin E.V., Abashkin V.V., Korost D.V. Improving watershed-based pore-network extraction method using maximum inscribed ball pore-body positioning
    ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES, 2020, vol. 140 , p. 103576

    Pore-scale modeling is a rapidly evolving area of research because modeling multiphase flow directly on 3D pore geometries is of utmost importance in wide variety of research areas, including oil and gas development, hydrology and material sciences. Although there are numerous methods to model flow, only so-called pore-network models are computationally effective enough to perform simulations in large modeling domains, and they are orders of magnitude faster than direct modeling approaches. However, pore-network models require a simplification of the 3D pore geometry to perform simulations, which are usually referred to as pore-network extraction. Such extraction poses a separate problem because it must provide an accurate description of the pore space geometry and topology. Different methods have been proposed in the literature. Recently, watershed-based approaches have been popular due to their effectiveness in working with porous media images of any porosity. A watershed algorithm requires seed placement to segment the space into distinct pores. We propose a hybrid algorithm combining the power of watersheds in finding intersections between pores with the advantages of the maximum inscribed ball technique, which is very effective in finding pore centers. We rigorously verify and test our novel methodology on artificial and X-ray microtomography images of wide variety of porous materials: sphere packings, carbonate, soil, ceramic and sandstone samples. Comparison against a purely watershed-based method and results based solely on the maximum inscribed balls-based method (in terms of pore/throat total number, pore size distributions and connection statistics, and multiphase flow properties including capillary curves and relative permeabilities) revealed the accuracy of our novel technique, consistency with existing classical techniques and great potential in analysing 3D pore images of any complexity. On the other hand, comparison of extracted pore-network topology (as based on Euler number) revealed significant differences between different methodologies, which is rather surprising considering the similarities in two-phase flow properties. While analysing permeability results, we also compared two popular pore-throat partitioning models and advocated in favor of the weight model usually utilized within watershed-based extracted pore networks. Our results illuminate problems in current pore-network models and outline some potential ways to improve their accuracy in future research.

  • Borisov V.E., Zenchenko E.V., Kritsky B.V., Savenkov E.B., Trimonova M.A., Turuntaev S.B. Numerical simulation of laboratory experiments on the analysis of filtration flows in poroelastic media
    Herald of the Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2020, vol. 88 , p. 16-31

    The work is devoted to mathematical simulation of laboratory experiments on the single-phase fluid displacement in synthetic porous samples. The basis of the mathematical model used is the system of poroelasticity equations in terms of the Biot's model, which implies that the processes of fluid filtration and the dynamics of changes in the stress-strain state of a continuous medium are considered together in the framework of a single coupled statement. For simulation, the software package developed at the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, was used. The laboratory experiments considered in this work were performed at the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences. The mathematical model used is briefly presented; the main computational algorithms and the features of their software implementation are described. A detailed description of the laboratory set-up, laboratory experiments themselves and their results are given. A significant part of the work is devoted to the problem statement description in terms of mathematical simulation. The results of calculations are presented; the calculated and experimentally observed dependencies are compared. The possible causes of the observed deviations are analyzed

  • Spivak A.A., Riabova S.A. The Geomagnetic Effect of Earthquakes
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2020, vol. 488, No. 1, p. 1107-1110

    Based on the results of instrumental observations carried out at a number of mid-latitude observatories of the INTERMAGNET network and at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory (Institute of Geospheres Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences), it is shown that strong earthquakes are accompanied by increased variations in the Earth's magnetic field. In this case, the short-period (period of similar to 0.5-0.8 min) and long-period (similar to 5-20 min) stages of increased geomagnetic variations are clearly distinguished. The maximum amplitudes of induced geomagnetic variations for short-period and long-period variations are 1.5-2 and 2-4 nT, respectively. Induced geomagnetic disturbances of similar morphology and almost synchronous nature are noted at observatories located at significantly different distances from the earthquake source.

  • Shalimov, S.L., Spivak A.A., Kharlamov, V.A. Atmospheric Pressure Variations Induced by the Tohoku Earthquake
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2020, vol. 490, No. 1, p. 28-30

    The response of atmospheric pressure to the Tohoku earthquake on February 11, 2011 (magnitude M similar to 9), is analyzed using the results of instrumental observations made at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory, Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IDG RAS). It is shown that the earthquake gave rise to atmospheric pressure fluctuations with periods as long as 8.5, 9.4, 10, and 10.4 h. Waves in an isothermal atmosphere with a source at the earthquake epicenter are considered as a possible cause of excitation of these basic variations.

  • Spivak A.A., Riabova S.A., Rybnov, Y.S., Kharlamov V.A. Geophysical Effects of the November 26, 2019, Earthquake in Albania
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2020, vol. 491, No. 1, p. 155-159

    Based on instrumental observations made at a number of the INTERMAGNET network observatories, at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory, and at the Center for Geophysical Monitoring (Institute of Geospheric Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), the acoustic, magnetic, and electrical effects accompanying the November 26, 2019, earthquake in Albania are analyzed. It is shown that this seismic event was accompanied by disturbances in the physical fields at considerable distances from the epicenter. At the same time, the parameters of induced variations in the atmospheric current and magnetic and electric fields allowed them to be recorded confidently by the available instrumentation. The results of recording infrasound signals caused by vertical movements of the Earth's crust in Rayleigh waves, as well as of recording the signal propagating along a stratospheric waveguide, are presented.

  • Alpatov V.V., Bekker S.Z., Kozlov S.I., Lyakhov A.N., Yakim V.V., Yakubovsky S.V. ANALYZING EXISTING APPLIED MODELS OF THE IONOSPHERE TO CALCULATE RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION AND A POSSIBILITY OF THEIR USE FOR RADAR-TRACKING SYSTEMS. II. DOMESTIC MODELS
    SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS, 2020, vol. 6, No. 3, p. 60-66

    We consider the ionospheric models that are suitable for over-the-horizon HF and UHF band radars. Namely, there are three such models: the numerical model developed by IZMIRAN and Fedorov Institute of Applied Geophysics, the numerical model designed by ISTP SB RAS and IDG RAS, and the probabilistic model worked out by IDG RAS. We briefly describe these models and report the results of the analysis of their compliance with radar requirements. Probabilis- tic models are shown to be most promising; hence, they must be placed at the frontier of ionosphere simulation.

  • Rukosuev A.L., Belousov V.N., Nikitin A.N., Sheldakova Yu.V., Kudryashov A.V., Bogachev V.A., Volkov M.V., Garanin S.G., Starikov F.A. Smart adaptive optical system for correcting the laser wavefront distorted by atmospheric turbulence
    QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, 2020, vol. 50, No. 8, p. 707-709

    An adaptive optical system is developed to correct the wavefront of laser radiation distorted by a turbulent air flow. The use of a field-programmable gate array as the main control element makes it possible to achieve a system bandwidth of 2 kHz. The results of experiments on dynamic correction of the phase of a laser beam distorted by a flow of heated air are presented and analysed

  • Shuvalov V.V. Terrain Effect on Impact Cratering
    SOLAR SYSTEM RESEARCH, 2020, vol. 54, No. 2, p. 167-173

    The results of numerical simulation of kilometer-sized asteroid impacts on different types of terrain (a flat surface, a mountain, and a depression) are presented. The results show that terrain features significantly affect the amplitude of the shock wave propagating along the surface, the fireball size, the radiation fluxes on the surface, and the distribution of ejecta around the crater. This effect is significant if terrain inhomogeneities are equal to or larger than the impactor in size.

  • Kalenkov S.G., Kalenkov G.S., Shtanko A.E. Continuous phase-shifting holography
    JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION, 2020, vol. 37, No. 1, p. 39-44

    A scanning full-field interferometer is a key device in the optical scheme of digital hyperspectral hologram registration. Behind the theory of hyperspectral holography is Fourier transform spectroscopy, wherein the set of spectrally resolved complex amplitudes of the object's hyperspectral field is obtained via the Fourier transform of a series of interferograms registered in incoherent radiation. Several established approaches in digital holography, based on discrete phase-shifting techniques as well as continuous phase modulation of the reference signal by a scanning mirror, are special cases of Fourier transform spectroscopy, where a coherent light source is used for hologram registration. The proposed algorithm was found to apply to processing holograms registered by various phase-shifting techniques and can give a greater signal-to-noise ratio

  • Shuvalov V., Kosarev I., Svetsov V. Formation of Libyan Desert Glass: Numerical simulations of melting of silica due to radiation from near-surface airbursts
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2020, vol. 55, No. 4, p. 895-910

    Libyan Desert Glass contains meteoritic material and, therefore, its origin is most likely associated with an impact event. However, the impact crater has not been found. We performed numerical simulations of impacts of stony and cometary bodies in order to confirm the version that this glass was formed from silica heated by radiation from aerial bursts near the ground. Asteroids were treated as strengthless bodies from dunite with a density of 3.3 g cm(-3), and comets as icy bodies with a density of 1 g cm(-3). The simulations based on hydrodynamic equations included the equations of radiation transfer. Melting and vaporization of a silica target under action of radiation incident on a planar surface were modeled using a one-dimensional hydrodynamic equation of energy and equations of radiation transfer in two-flux approximation. We selected those variants of simulations in which a crater is not formed, a fireball touches the earth surface, and the area of a molten target corresponds to the area of the Libyan Desert Glass strewn field. Appropriate options include the impact of an asteroid with a diameter of 300 m, an entry speed of 35 km s(-1), and an entry angle of 8 degrees, and cometary bodies with diameters from 150 to 300 m, speeds of 50-70 km s(-1), and entry angles from 15 degrees to 45 degrees. Impact options with crater formation are also discussed. The maximum depth of molten silica at ground zero reaches 10 cm with the cometary impacts and 3-4 cm with the asteroidal impact. Melting occurs during a period of time from 50 to 400 s.

  • Aksenov O.Yu., Kozlov S.I., Lyakhov A.N., Trekin V.V., Perunov Yu.M., Yakubovsky S.V. ANALYZING EXISTING APPLIED MODELS OF THE IONOSPHERE FOR CALCULATING RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION AND POSSIBILITY OF THEIR USE FOR RADAR SYSTEMS. I. CLASSIFICATION OF APPLIED MODELS AND THE MAIN REQUIREMENTS FOR RADAR APPLICATIONS
    SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS, 2020, vol. 6, No. 1, p. 69-76

    We review modern HF-X band radars including over-the-horizon systems. The ionosphere significantly affects wave propagation in all the bands. We describe available correction techniques, which use additional evidence on the ionosphere, as well as models of different degrees of complexity. The fact that the field of view cannot be covered by ground-based instruments as well as the growing requirements to the precision and stability of the radars result in the impossibility of ionospheric correction with up-to-date models, hence the latter require further elaboration. We give a virtually full classification of the models. The article summarizes the requirements to the models for the radars depending on their task

  • Riabova S.A., Shalimov S.L., Spivak A.A., Kharlamov V.A. Atmospheric Manifestations of the Strong Earthquakes
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2020, vol. 56, No. 4, p. 481-489

    Based on the analysis of data from the Geophysical Observatory "Mikhnevo" and the Center for Geophysical Monitoring of Moscow of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the response of the atmospheric boundary layer to the strong earthquakes with magnitudes starting from >= 7 is considered. It is shown that the Tohoku earthquake (March 11, 2011, Japan) can be associated with the variations in atmospheric pressure with periods ranging from 8 to 11 h that emerged after this event, whereas a series of the strong earthquakes discussed in the work are accompanied by the variations in the atmospheric pressure with periods close to the singlets of the fundamental free oscillation of the Earth(0)S(2). Another effect after the earthquakes is the presence of the acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere with a period close to the Brunt-Vaisala period at large distances from the epicenter.

  • Spivak A.A., Kharlamov V.A., Adushkin V.V., Soloviev S.P. Open Pit Mining with Blasting: GeoEcological Aftermath
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2020, vol. 56, No. 2, p. 309-321

    The article analyzes statistics on micro-solid emissions in mineral mining and discusses features of micro-emission in atmosphere in large-scale blasting in open pit mines. The gas-dynamic calculations of dust and gas cloud elevation after blasting for localization of solid micro particles and determination of their concentration in the troposphere are presented. The influence of large-scale blasting on regional seismicity is illustrated in terms of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin

  • Adushkin V.V., Nifadiev V.I., Chen B.B., Popel S.I., Kogai G.A., Dubinskii A.Yu., Weidler P.G Characteristics of Internal Gravity Waves and Earthquake Prediction
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2020, vol. 493, No. 2, p. 632-635

    On the basis of the data on perturbations in the Earth's atmosphere recorded before and after 52 significant earthquakes that occurred during the period from 1997 to 2018 in the Asian region, it is shown that the amplitudes of internal gravity waves that originated from seismically active regions can be used at the saturation threshold level for a short-term indication of upcoming seismic events.

  • Adushkin, V.V., Varypaev A.V., Kushnir A.F., Sanina, I.A. Identification of Induced Seismicity in the Fault Zone of the Korobkovskoye Deposits (Kursk Magnetic Anomaly) Based on Observations of a Small-Aperture Seismic Array
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES , 2020, vol. 493, No. 1, p. 548-551

    The results of recording and determining the locations of seismic events triggered by industrial explosions conducted by OJSC Kombinat KMAruda at the Korobkovskoe iron ore deposit (Belgorod Region) are presented. Seismic signals were recorded by a small-aperture seismic array located on the surface in the immediate vicinity of the mine workings. The confinement of induced seismicity to the fault zone and the migration of seismic sources along its strike have been established. Such studies on the territory of the Korobkovskoe iron ore deposit have been performed for the first time.

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A. Magnetic and Electrical Effects of the Explosive Stage of the Stromboli Volcanic Eruption (July 3, 2019, Italy)
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2020, vol. 493, No. 1, p. 526-529

    The response of the Earth's magnetic field and electrical parameters of the atmosphere to the eruption of Stromboli (July 3, 2019, Italy) is studied using the results of instrumental observations carried out at several observatories of the INTERMAGNET network and the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory, Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences. It is shown that the beginning of the eruption of Stromboli volcano had an explosive character and was accompanied by pronounced geomagnetic variations as well as variations in the electric field intensity and the amplitude of the atmospheric current at a considerable distance from the disturbance sources.

  • Sanina I.A., Riznichenko O.Yu., Kushnir A.F., Varypaev A.V., Sergeev S.I., Volosov S.G. Recognizing of Microseismic Source Types Based on Small-Aperture Seismic Array Data
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2020, vol. 56, No. 2, p. 260-278

    In this paper, we consider the problem of recording and processing the microseismic data with their subsequent interpretation and making the decisions concerning the probable threats associated with the violation of integrity of terrestrial environment due to mining activity. These decisions are made based on the detection of microseismic sources and recognition of their types by processing the multichannel seismograms from small-aperture seismic arrays. The procedures of seismogram processing include the algorithms for detecting the signals of microseismic sources in the noisy seismograms from the array sensors and the procedures for estimating various parameters of these sources. In this paper, we propose a new detection algorithm which is based on evaluating multiple coherence of the array seismograms and is capable of identifying the waves radiated from microseismic sources with complex focal mechanisms against the diffuse seismic noise. In contrast to the widely used STA/LTA array detector which is aimed at separating plane seismic waves, the proposed detector is intended for the recognition of waves from local seismic events in the complexly structured subsurface environment. Based on the numerical experiments with model and real seismic array data containing signals from the sources with complex focal mechanisms, it is shown that the types of microseismic sources can be recognized with the use of various algorithms of seismic array data analysis: with new algorithms for estimating the coordinates of microseismic sources and with traditional algorithms of space-time spectral analysis

  • Besedina A.N., Kocharyan G.G., Pavlov D.V., Kishkina S.B., Kulikov V.I., Adushkin V.V. Weak Induced Seismicity in the Korobkov Iron Ore Field of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2020, vol. 56, No. 3, p. 339-350

    The article presents the analysis of seismic observations in mine roadways. The recorded seismic signals are connected with dynamic deformation of rock mass under massive blasting. The source of induced seismicity are dynamic movements deformation of rocks with an amplitude of 3-30 mu m along fractures 1-15 m long. These events feature low values of reduced energy, probably, due to shallow depth of mining. Distribution of induced seismicity events in time and space agreed with patterns of larger seismic events due to remote earthquakes, which implies weak probability of nasty geodynamic phenomena in the course of mining in the Korobkov Field.

  • Ivanov B.A., Kuzmicheva M.Yu. Simulation of the Magnetic Anomaly Associated with a Complex Crater Using the Example of the Bosumtwi Crater
    SOLAR SYSTEM RESEARCH, 2020, vol. 54, No. 5, p. 372-383

    The impact crater formation on the surface of the Earth and other planetary bodies is accompanied by the action of shock waves on rocks and their displacement into a new position. The shock-wave compression results in the occurrence of the remanent heating of rocks (up to melting and evaporation during the unloading). The direct mechanical action of the shock compression and the remanent heating change the magnetic properties and magnetization, which leads to arising of the magnetic anomaly above the crater area. This work presents an example of the complex analysis of the magnetic anomaly above the well-studied impact crater Bosumtwi (Ghana, a diameter of about 10 km), including the numerical simulation of the crater formation process and the magnetic anomaly model on the basis of simulated parameters of shock compression. The complex model demonstrates a good agreement with data of direct measurements.

  • Ipatov S.I., Feoktistova E.A., Svettsov V.V. Number of Near-Earth Objects and Formation of Lunar Craters over the Last Billion Years
    SOLAR SYSTEM RESEARCH, 2020, vol. 54, No. 5, p. 384-404

    We compare the number of lunar craters larger than 15 km across and younger than 1.1 Ga to the estimates of the number of craters that could have been formed for 1.1 Ga if the number of near-Earth objects and their orbital elements during that time were close to the corresponding current values. The comparison was performed for craters over the entire lunar surface and in the region of the Oceanus Procellarum and maria on the near side of the Moon. In these estimates, we used the values of collision probabilities of near-Earth objects with the Moon and the dependences of the crater diameters on the impactor sizes. According to the estimates made by different authors, the number density of known Copernican craters with diametersD >= 15 km in mare regions is at least double the corresponding number for the remaining lunar surface. Our estimates do not contradict the growth in the number of near-Earth objects after probable catastrophic fragmentations of large main-belt asteroids, which may have occurred over the recent 300 Ma; however, they do not prove this increase. Particularly, they do not conflict with the inference made by Mazrouei et al. (2019) that 290 Ma ago the frequency of collisions of near-Earth asteroids with the Moon increased by 2.6 times. The number of Copernican lunar craters with diameters not smaller than 15 km is probably higher than that reported by Mazrouei et al. (2019). For a probability of a collision of an Earth-crossing object (ECO) with the Earth in a year equaled to 10(-8), our estimates of the number of craters agree with the model, according to which the number densities of the 15-km Copernican craters for the whole lunar surface would have been the same as that for mare regions if the data by Losiak et al. (2015) forD< 30 km were as complete as those forD > 30 km. With this collision probability of ECOs with the Earth and for this model, the cratering rate may have been constant over the recent 1.1 Ga.

  • Adushkin V.V., Aksenov O.Yu., Veniaminov, Veniaminov S.S., Kozlov S.I, Tyurenkova V.V. The small orbital debris population and its impact on space activities and ecological safety
    ACTA ASTRONAUTICA, 2020, vol. 176 , p. 591-597

    When it is said about the danger of orbital debris for space activities and the ecology of the Earth, it most often means large orbital debris. In contrast to large orbital debris, the influence of small ones to space activities and ecology of the Earth and near-Earth space is often underestimated. As will be shown in this paper, it is unfair. New data on the dynamics of contamination of near-Earth space with small debris in low Earth orbit were obtained. The number, mass, and dynamics of the small orbital debris population in low Earth orbit are estimated as well as the consequences of the deployment of multi-satellite communication satellite systems are estimated. It makes the study of this area particularly relevant. The various aspects of the consequences of technogenic contamination of near-Earth space are considered. The comparison of the danger of small orbital particles and large satellite fragments for space activity and the ecology of the Earth and near-Earth space is also provided.. significant lack of reliable information on small space debris is proved to be one of the main limiting factors for our knowledge about the population of space debris in low Earth orbits.

  • Vinnikov P.S., Ustinov V.D., Shtanko A.E., Lugovtsov A.E., Kalenkov G.S., Karpilova M.A A Mobile Device for Measuring the Size Distribution of Red Blood Cells
    Biomedical Engineering, 2020, vol. 54, No. 1, p. 6-8

    A LED-based optical detection circuit and a principle of analysis of diffraction patterns of wet blood smears are proposed. A compact computerized optical device based on the principles of ektacytometry (diffractometry) has been designed to measure the width of the size distribution of red blood cells

  • Sanina I.A., Volosov S.G., Konstantinovskaya N.L., Nesterkina, M.A., Goev A.G., Tarasov S.A. Accuracy of epicenters location of seismic events based on ⇜mikhevo⇝ small-aperture seismic array data. Do additional seismic stations needed?
    Geophysical Research, 2020, vol. 21, No. 2, p. 48-60

    The results of evaluating the accuracy of determining coordinates of the epicenters of seismic events that are registries by small-aperture array Mikhnevo are given. Quarry blasts located in the central part of the East European platform were used as a source of the events. With confident identification of seismic wave arrivals (signal to noise ratio ≥ 2), the small-aperture group independently provides high location accuracy and subsequent association of the event with the nearest quarry in coordinates. It is shown that the accuracy of the location strongly depends on the microseismic level, i.e. from signal to noise ratio. With a low signal to noise ratio (R≤2), the accuracy of the location decreases and in this case, the data received from the additional seismic stations can be useful.

  • Soloviev S.P., Shuvalov V.V., Khazins V.M. Numerical Modeling of Formation and Rise of Gas and Dust Cloud from Large Scale Commercial Blasting
    ATMOSPHERE, 2020, vol. 11, No. 10, p. 1112

    The emission of dust particles into the atmosphere during rock mass breaking by blasting in ore mining open-pits is one of the factors that determine the ground-level air pollution in the vicinity of pits. The data on dust concentration in the cloud, which is extremely difficult to obtain experimentally for large-scale explosions, is required to calculate the dust dispersion in the wind stream. We have elaborated a Eulerian model to simulate the initial stage of dust cloud formation and rising, and a Navier-Stokes model to simulate thermal rising and mixing with the ambient air. The first model is used to describe the dust cloud formation after a 500 t TNT (Trinitrotoluene equivalent) explosion. The second model based on the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method is used to predict the height of cloud rising, its mass, and the evolution of dust particles size distribution for explosions of 1-1000 t TNT. It was found that the value of the turbulent eddy viscosity coefficient (Smagorinsky coefficient) depends on both the charge mass and the spatial resolution (grid cell size). The values of the Smagorinsky coefficient were found for charges with a mass of 1-1000 t using a specific grid

  • Soloviev S.P., Krasheninnikov A.V., Loktev D.N. Megacity Aerosol Pollution and Atmospheric Electric Field Disturbances
    IZVESTIYA ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC PHYSICS, 2020, vol. 56, No. 8, p. 759-772

    The relationship between electric field variations and microparticle concentrations in the atmospheric surface layer has been studied using the example of the Moscow region. Synchronous field observations of the electric field strength obtained at two stations (the Moscow Center of Geophysical Monitoring and the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences) have been used. Under megacity conditions, the amplitudes of electric field signals have been found to increase relative to their values outside the region. The ratios of average electric field strengths at the observation stations to the values obtained outside the region have been estimated using the model that is developed. Variations in the electric field have been compared with changes in the concentrations of CO, NOx, SO2, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10); the electric field strength and the concentration of microparticles under megacity conditions have been found to be correlated.

  • Gavrilov B.G., Lyakhov A.N., Poklad Yu.V, Ermak V.M., Rybakov V.A., Ryakhovsky I.A. Reconstruction of the Parameters of the Lower Midlatitude Ionosphere in M- and X-Class Solar Flares
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2020, vol. 60, No. 6, p. 747-753

    The paper presents the results of the reconstruction of the effective height h' and the slope of the profile beta of the electron concentration in the D layer of the ionosphere during X-ray flares of M- and X-classes at the midlatitudes. The reconstruction was carried out with data from measurements at the observatory of the Institute of Geospheres Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences at the Mikhnevo observatory of amplitudes and the phases of signals from VLF transmitters GQD (19.6 kHz) and GBZ (22.1 kHz) that propagate along one mid-latitude path. Based on the calculations, the empirical dependencies of the parameters h' and beta on the flare energy according to the X-ray flux measurements on the GOES satellite are in the range 0.05-0.4 nm. Criteria are proposed for the selection of solar flares for the verification of theoretical computational models

  • Losseva T.V., Popel S.I., Golub A.P. Dust Ion-Acoustic Shock Waves in Laboratory, Ionospheric, and Astrophysical Plasmas
    PLASMA PHYSICS REPORTS, 2020, vol. 46, No. 11, p. 1089-1107

    Methods of description of ion-acoustic shock waves in dusty plasma are presented. A new type of dust ion-acoustic shock waves related to anomalous dissipation is described. The main dissipative processes related to charging of dust particles, absorption of ions by dust particles, Coulomb collisions between ions and dust particles, and Landau damping are analyzed. Proposed methods of theoretical analysis enable explaining all major specific features of dust ion-acoustic shock waves observed in the laboratory experiments. The shock waves of this type are present in the near-Earth plasma and the universe. Their investigation is possible in active ionospheric experiments of the Fluxus type. Important astrophysical problems in which the appearance of shock waves under consideration should be taken into consideration are the shock waves of supernovas, evolution of Local Interstellar medium, etc

  • Ryakhovsky I.A., Gavrilov B.G., Poklad Yu.V., Pilipenko V.A. Geomagnetic effect of the Bering Sea meteoroid
    RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, 2020, vol. 20, No. 6, p. ES6009

    Possibilities of studies of the geomagnetic effects produced by the interaction of a cosmic bodies with the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere system are very limited due to extremely small number of examined events. Here we present geomagnetic observations at an array of magnetometers during Bering Sea Bolide event on December 18, 2018 when a space body entered the Earth's atmosphere and exploded at the altitude of similar to 25 km near Kamchatka. It has been found that the short-lived electromagnetic signal appeared before the explosion and, consequently, was trigged by the passage of a meteoroid through the inner magnetosphere. Geomagnetic disturbances of the same duration and frequency of oscillations were detected both in the area adjacent to the explosion site in the Northern hemisphere and in the magnetically conjugated area in the Southern hemisphere. These observations may be provisionally interpreted as a triggered excitation of resonant field line oscillations in the inner magnetosphere by the fast-moving meteoroid. The magnetosphere is often in a metastable state, when even a weak external trigger can stimulate an internal instability and wave generation. The appearance of a diamagnetic effect during partial ablation of a meteoroid could cause a local disturbance of the geomagnetic field and its propagation in the magnetic force tube

  • Sakharov A.M., Baryshnikov N.V., Karasik V.E., Sheldakova J.V., Kudryashov A.V., Nikitin A.A. A method for reconstructing the equation of the aspherical surface of mirrors in an explicit form using a device with a wavefront sensor
    OPTICAL MANUFACTURING AND TESTING XIII, 2020, vol. 11487 , p. 114870B

    We present a device using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for measuring concave optical parts. A technique based on the device makes it easy to measure the main parameters of the aspherical equation of concave aspherical mirrors, radius of closest sphere R-v and eccentricity epsilon. The described method allows you to reconstruct the shape of the controlled surface in the form of an equation specified during its manufacture.

  • Kudryashov A.V,. Sheldakova Y.V., Nikitin A.N., Belousov V.N., Samarkin V.V., Rukosuev A.L., Galaktionov I.V. FPGA-based 2 kHz closed-loop adaptive optical system with stacked actuator deformable mirror
    UNCONVENTIONAL IMAGING AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS 2020, 2020, vol. 115080 , p. 115080K

    An adaptive optical system that implements a phase conjugation algorithm designed to compensate for the effect of atmospheric turbulence the propagating laser beam is presented. The system allows compensating for the influence of atmospheric disturbances up to 200 Hz (in terms of sine). To achieve the compensation effect system operates at a frequency of 2000 Hz (in terms of fps - frames per second). Such high performance can be achieved only when using FPGA as the master control element of the system. The results of correction of disturbances obtained by using a heat fan, simulating the turbulence to frequencies of 200 Hz, are presented.

  • Nikitin A. Kudryashov A.V. Sheldakova Y.V. Galaktionov I. Samarkin V. Rukosuev A.L. Toporovskiy V. Flat-top beam formation with miniature bimorph deformable mirror
    LASER BEAM SHAPING XX, 2020, vol. 11486 , p. 114860E

    Bimorph deformable mirror with 63 electrodes on a 20 mm aperture is discussed. Methods of dividing all-round electrodes into sectors with a square of 2-4 mm(2) are described. Results of flat-top beam formation using a 50 mm bimorph deformable mirror with 48 electrodes and a 20 mm miniature bimorph mirror with 27 electrodes are presented and compared.

  • Nikitin A.N., Starikov F.A., Volkov M.V., Bogachev V.A., Khlebnikov A.A., Rukosuev A.L. Dynamic correction of the laser beam distortion by 2000 Hz FPGA-based adaptive optical system
    LASER COMMUNICATION AND PROPAGATION THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE AND OCEANS IX, 2020, vol. 11506 , p. 1150607

    The results of numerical simulations and experiments on the correction of turbulent distortions of a laser beam are presented. The experiments were carried out using an adaptive optical system with a bandwidth of 2000 Hz. It was shown that for effective correction the bandwidth of the adaptive optical system should be an order of magnitude larger than the bandwidth of turbulent distortions.

  • Nikitin A.N., Starikov F.A., Volkov M.V., Bogachev V.A., Khlebnikov A.A., Rukosuev A.L. Dynamic correction of the laser beam distortion by 2000 Hz FPGA-based adaptive optical system
    LASER COMMUNICATION AND PROPAGATION THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE AND OCEANS IX, 2020, vol. 11506 , p. 1150607

    The results of numerical simulations and experiments on the correction of turbulent distortions of a laser beam are presented. The experiments were carried out using an adaptive optical system with a bandwidth of 2000 Hz. It was shown that for effective correction the bandwidth of the adaptive optical system should be an order of magnitude larger than the bandwidth of turbulent distortions.

  • Nikitin A.N., Kudryashov A.V., Sheldakova Y.V., Galaktionov I.V., Samarkin V.V., Rukosuev A.L., Toporovskiy V.V. Focusing laser beam through pinhole using stacked-actuator deformable mirror
    Laser Resonators, Microresonators, and Beam Control XXII, 2020, vol. 11266 , p. 112661B

    The article discusses the use of stacked-actuator adaptive mirrors to improve the focusing of laser radiation. The criterion of focusing efficiency is the fraction of the energy of the laser radiation passing through the pinhole located in the focal plane of the focusing lens.

  • Nikitin A.N., Kudryashov A.V., Sheldakova Y.V., Galaktionov I.V., Samarkin V.V., Rukosuev A.L. Toporovskiy V.V. Miniature bimorph deformable mirror for laser beam shaping
    LASER RESONATORS, MICRORESONATORS, AND BEAM CONTROL XXII, 2020, vol. 11266 , p. 112661L

    Laser beam shaping technology nowadays requires as small diameter of the adaptive optics as possible. In our lab we usually control for laser radiation by means of bimorph deformable mirrors with a typical size of more than 50 mm. To fit the most of industrial and scientific applications the aperture of the corrector should be reduced because the use of extra optics instead makes the whole optical scheme more complicated and introduces extra distortions. But in a bid to reduce the size of the mirror we should care of the response of the mirror electrodes which obviously should not decrease drastically. Here we present 20 mm bimorph mirror with high density of electrodes which is manufactured using laser engraving technology to divide the electrode on the piezoceramic disc into a large number of the controlled sectors. The ability of laser beam formation by means of this mirror is discussed, the results are compared with the ones obtained using 50 mm bimorph deformable mirror.

  • Samarkin V.V., Rukosuev A.L., Toporovskiy V.V., Kudryashov A.V., Sheldakova Y.V. Applicability of small-size wavefront correctors to compensate for wavefront distortions in laser systems
    LASER RESONATORS, MICRORESONATORS, AND BEAM CONTROL XXII, 2020, vol. 11266 , p. 1126619

    As well known, the quality of radiation of laser beam is reduced during propagation along optical trace, because of various reasons (for example, atmospheric turbulence, scattering, thermal fluctuations etc.). We propose small-size deformable mirrors with high spatial resolution of control elements, that will allow to compensate for wavefront aberrations in wide range. Developed wavefront corrector could be used in different scientific areas: free-space communications, destruction of space debris, etc.

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A., Rybnov Yu S., Soloviev S.P., Kharlamov V.A. Acoustic, Magnetic, and Electric Effects of Stromboli Volcano Eruption, Italy, in July-August 2019
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2020, vol. 56, No. 5, p. 708-720

    The results of instrumental observations of acoustic oscillations, geomagnetic variations, and variations in the electric field and atmospheric electric current during the activation of the Stromboli volcano, Italy, in 2019 are presented. Separately considered are the periods of explosive activity and the interval marked by intense emission of incandescent ash-and-gas mixture. It is shown that volcanic activity is accompanied by acoustic signal generation at the explosive stages of the eruption and by the emergence of internal gravity waves at the stage of intense effusion of ash and gas ("purging"). The characteristic variations in the Earth's magnetic field and in the electrical parameters of the atmospheric surface layer are observed during different periods of volcanic eruption. The presented results expand the existing database and can be useful for improving the existing models and developing the new models describing the effect of volcanic activity on the geophysical environment as well as for verifying these models

  • Goev A.G., Kalinina E.V. Azimuthal Elastic Anisotropy of the Upper Mantle under the Central Part of the Voronezh Uplift
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2020, vol. 494, No. 2, p. 787-789

    The azimuthal elastic anisotropy of the upper mantle of the Voronezh uplift is estimated from the data of three three-component broadband stations of the Voronezh seismic network: "Storozhevoe" (VSR), "Novokhopersk" (VRH), and "Galichia Gora" (LPSR) from SKS/SKKS splitting. Two parameters were calculated-the time shift between two quasi-shear waves (delta t), which are formed when a shear wave (for example, SKS) passes through an anisotropic medium, and the azimuth of the axis of maximum speed alpha (axis of symmetry), along which a "fast" quasi-shear wave propagates. According to the data from different station, the anisotropic parameters are alpha = 40 degrees, delta t = 0.6 s (VSR); alpha = 40 degrees, delta t = 0.1 s (VRH); alpha = 40 degrees, delta t = 0.4 s (LPSR). Taking into account the relatively close location of the stations, all the data were summed up to yield alpha = 40 degrees, delta t = 0.4 s. As all obtained results are similar to each other and coincide with the direction of movement of the Eurasian plate, it is concluded that the anisotropy of the upper mantle in the region is relatively weak, has a northeast azimuth, and is caused by modern tectonic processes.

  • Bashilov I.P., Vereshchagin A.A., Zagorskiy L.S., Zagorskiy D.L., Ryazantsev Y.V., Chervinchuk S.Y., Yudochkin N.P. Single channel seismic sounding in geological engineering survey
    Mining Informational and Analytical Bulletin, 2020 , No. 4, p. 141-150

    The article discusses application of the passive seismic method MOVSR by the single channel seismic sounding technology (SCSS) using the software/hardware single channel seismic station in geological engineering survey on the Mikhnevo test ground of of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences. The specifications of the sing channel seismic station, field operation technology, mathematical calculation algorithm and its results in the form of the velocity profile plot are described. The technology SCSS features simplicity and operational efficiency. Its implementation needs 3 seismic detectors. Two detectors are installed at a distance from the test site and serve as the reference stations which operate continuously and are used to eliminate temporal variations. The third movable seismic detector is used to obtained data at the test point. The simultaneous operation of two reference detectors accelerates field works. A feature of the data processing procedure is the calculation of the Fourier transform by the coordinate along the profile and the use of the almost periodic functions at resonance frequencies. The calculations revealed deceleration of SV-component of the Rayleigh wave due to the presence of a vertical shaft and two adits in the test ground. The capabilities of the method are illustrated from the comparison with the borehole data obtained nearby the Mikhnevo settlement. It is concluded on applicability of the software/hardware single channel seismic station with the single channel seismic sounding technology in geological engineering surveys.

  • Krasnoshchekov D.N., Ovtchinnikov V.M. Heterogeneities of the Earth's Inner Core Boundary from Differential Measurements of PKiKP and PcP Seismic Phases
    PROBLEMS OF GEOCOSMOS - 2018, 2020 , p. 241-251

    The Earth's crystalline inner core (IC) solidifies from the liquid Fe alloy of the outer core (OC), which releases latent heat and light elements sustaining the geodynamo. Variability in solidification regime at the inner core boundary (ICB) may result in compositional and thermal multi-scale mosaic of the IC surface and dissimilarity of its hemispheres. Both the mosaic and hemisphericity are poorly constrained, not least due to a lack of available sampling by short-period reflected waves. Measured amplitude ratio of seismic phases of PKiKP and PcP reflected, respectively, off the inner and outer boundary of the liquid core, yields direct estimate of the ICB density jump. This parameter is capable of constraining the inner-outer core compositional difference and latent energy release, but is not well known (0.2-1.2 g/cub. cm), and its distribution is obscure. Travel time measurements of PKiKP and PcP waveforms can be useful in terms of getting an insight into fine structure of ICB and its topography. We analyse a new representative sample of pre-critical PKiKP/PcP differential travel times and amplitude ratios that probe the core's spots under South-eastern Asia and South America. We observe a statistically significant systematic bias between the Asian and American measurements, and carefully examine its origin. Separating the effects of core-mantle boundary and ICB on the measured differentials is particularly challenging and we note that a whole class of physically valid models involving D '' heterogeneities and lateral variation in lower mantle attenuation can be employed to account for the observed bias. However, we find that variance in PKiKP-PcP differential travel times measured above the epicentral distance of 16 degrees is essentially due to mantle heterogeneities. Analysis of data below this distance indicates the ICB density jump under Southeastern Asia can be about 0.3 g/cub. cm, which is three times as small as under South America where also the thickness of the above liquid core can be by 1-3 km in excess of the one in the East. The findings preclude neither IC hemispherical asymmetry (whereby crystallization dominates in the West and melting in the East) nor patchy IC surface, but provide an improved and robust estimate of the ICB density jump in two probed locations.

  • Trimonova M.A., Zenchenko E.V., Baryshnikov N.A., Zenchenko P.E., Turuntaev S.B. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the lag in the hydraulic fracture
    8th International Field Exploration and Development Conference, 2020 , p. 1934-1942

    Recently, with the growth of the shale non-traditional hydrocarbon field developments, the need for refinement of the models of hydraulic fracturing increases. One of the main components of any model is the problem of fluid flow in the fracture. There are several approaches to this problem. One approach is based on the assumption that the fracture grows faster than the fluid front in it. That is, a dry tip appears between the end of the fracture and the front of the fluid. An experiment on hydraulic fracturing, confirming this fact, is presented in this paper.

  • Kartashova A., Golubaev A., Mozgova A., Chuvashov I., Bolgova G., Glazachev D., Efremov V. Investigation of the Ozerki meteoroid parameters
    PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE, 2020 , p. 105034

    In the morning of June 21, 2018 (1:16 Universal Time (UTC)) the space body entered the Earth atmosphere in the Lipetsk region, Russia. This event was detected by a number of registration systems in cars, satellite observations of bolide light curve and subsequent dust trail. The videos, photos, satellite data allow us to calculate the trajectory and the orbit of the Ozerki bolide. The atmospheric entry velocity is 14. 9 +/- 1 km/s. The height of the depression point is 32.8 +/- 0.9 km and that of the maximum brightness is 27.2 +/- 0.9 km. The pre-atmospheric orbit of the Ozerki meteoroid was also calculated: q = 0.67 +/- 0.04 AU, a = 0.84 +/- 0.02 AU, e = 0.199 +/- 0.030, i = 18.44 degrees +/- 3.05 degrees, Omega = 89.6561 degrees and omega = 335.29 degrees +/- 5.15 degrees. The geocentric radiant position is RA = 307.51 degrees +/- 3 degrees and DEC = 43.11 degrees +/- 3.degrees The found material was called Ozerki meteorite and it is classified as an ordinary chondrite (L6). The estimated: mass of the meteoroid is 94 +/- 20 tons, the energy is 2.5 +/- 0.5 kt TNT, diameter is 3.7 +/- 0.5 m.

  • Bekker S.Z., Ryakhovsky I.A. Methodology of the lower ionosphere models verification based on VLF radio wave propagation during X-ray flares
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physic, 2020 , p. 115607T

    The paper is devoted to the verification method of results of the lower ionosphere models during solar flares. The verification is based on radio physical measurements of VLF signals. Radio wave amplitude values are normalized according to the difference between experimental and theoretical results, obtained during the calm heliogeophysical day, which is followed by the observed solar flares. This method allows to compare absolute values of radiophysical characteristics without knowing transmitter power. Such an approach makes it possible to evaluate the predictive capabilities of the ionosphere model during flares not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively. As a result of the D-region model verification, it was found that the standard deviation of the difference between experimental and theoretical amplitude of VLF signal is less than 1 dB in ~ 80% of cases.

  • Losseva T.V. Method for radiation transfer calculation in numerical simulation of strong perturbation in the atmosphere
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115608C

    The work is devoted to an effective method of radiation transfer equations (multi-group diffusion equations) solving used in the numerical simulations of strong perturbations in the atmosphere. The finite-difference approximations of these equations based on the conservative properties of finite difference schemes are presented. In this scheme the analytical solutions of diffusion equations (both for the energy density and for the flux density) are determined inside each layer of a difference grid under the assumption of constancy of the gas-dynamic parameters. The results of test calculations of a number of problems are presented

  • Poklad Yu.V., Gavrilov B.G., Ermak V.M., Lyakhov A.N., Ryakhovskiy I.A., Rybakov V.A. Dependence of variation of the parameters of the D-layer of the ionosphere during X-ray flashes of M and X classes from their energy
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115608P

    The paper presents the variations in the parameters of the ionosphere D-layer during X-ray flares of M and X classes on the propagation path of signals from the superluminal waves of the GQD and GBZ transmitters, as well as those adopted by the Mikhnevo State Educational Center. It is shown that, within the framework of the two-parameter Ferguson-White model, the effective reflection height of the VLF signal h' and the gradient of increase in the electron concentration β at the leading edge of the flare are related to the X-ray energy in the range 0.05-0.4 nm

  • Kovaleva I.Kh., Kovalev A.T. ION heating mechanisms in ionosphere high-speed plasma jet in presence of a background electric field
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115608R

    The experimental data of active ionosphere experiment “North-star” are revisited.During the experiment, the plasma jet was injected into the ionosphere plasma transverse to geomagnetic field. A prolonged glow of the plasma cloud was observed. Anomalous ionization, low frequency waves and plasma heating were detected. The asymmetric azimuthal distribution of superthermal electrons indicates the presence of an intense transverse DC electric field. A change in the dynamics of a plasma jet under the influence of this factor is considered in this paper. The external DC electric field and electrostatic ion-cyclotron drift waves on density/temperature gradient along the transverse DC electric field play a role in plasma heating.

  • Rybakov V.A., Gavrilov B.G. ,Ermak V.M.,Poklad Yu.V., Ryakhovskiy I.A., Babaykina K.V. Unipolar component of the electric field and vertical atmospheric currents (according to the GFO “Mikhnevo”)
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115608T

    The paper presents the results of measurements of the electric field and vertical atmospheric currents in conditions of "fair weather" and their comparison with the Carnegie curve. The features of the measurement data associated with the detection of the evening maximum of the electric field strength are shown.

  • Rybnov Yu.S.,Spivak A.A., Romanovsky Ya.O., Soloviev S.P., Kharlamov V.A. Аcoustic effects of great fire on gas pipelines
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115607O

    Based on the analysis of instrumental observation data, it is shown that large fires on gas pipelines manifest themselves in local variations in the amplitude of acoustic vibrations. The formation of a highly heated convective stream of gaseous products over a stationary combustion center provides an intensive supply of cold air into it. In this case, the formation of pressure and temperature gradients near the flame leads to the formation of vortex structures in the atmosphere and the generation of infrasound. An example of a severe fire on a gas pipeline in Moscow on May 10, 2009 is considered.

  • Lyakhov A.N., Goncharov E.S., Losseva T.V. FDTD, FDFD and mode sum methods for VLF-LF propagation in the lower ionosphere
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115608S

    Verification of the lower ionosphere models on VLF evidence requires robust radio wave propagation code. It, in turn, must handle inhomogeneous, disperse, anisotropic medium. We present results for FDTD, FVFD and complete mode sum methods for homogeneous and inhomogeneous model ionospheres. The quantitative results are presented on required memory, achievable precision and stability. The fastest, easiest and most suitable for ionosphere model verification problem method is FVFD. FDTD is general but it requires supercomputer resources in the problem of the lower ionosphere model verification.

  • Khazins V.M., Soloviev S.P. Numerical simulation of dust-gas cloud rise from explosion near Earth's surface
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115602I

    Pollution of the atmosphere and territories adjacent to opencast mine by mineral particles during explosive breaking of rock mass is one of the factors affecting the environmental situation in the vicinity of quarries and reducing the transparency of the surface layer of the atmosphere. A significant effect of wind on particle transfer begins after the completion of the rise of a dust-gas cloud formed by an explosion on the surface of the earth. Numerical simulation was used to determine the characteristics of a dust cloud starting from the moment of formation of the fireball until the cloud reaches hydrostatic equilibrium. The numerical model was improved in order to calculate the dynamics of the dust cloud for charges with a mass of 1 to 1000 tons of TNT. The fireball parameters were set based on the data of theoretical and experimental studies. Based on numerical calculations, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics of the dust-gas cloud for an explosion with a mass of 500 tons of TNT is carried out. The obtained relations allow one to determine the height of the upper edge and the radius of the cap of dust-gas clouds depending on the energy of the explosion with a mass of 1 to 1000 tons of TNT.

  • Samarkin V.V., Rukosuev A.L., Toporovskiy V.V., Kudryashov A.V., Sheldakova Y.V., Nikitin A.N., Otrubyannikova O.V. Cooled Stacked-Actuator Deformable Mirror for Compensation for Phase Fluctuations in a Turbulent Atmosphere
    ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC OPTICS, 2020, vol. 33, No. 6, p. 584-590

    A wavefront corrector has been designed in the form of a cooled stacked-actuator deformable mirror for the correction of aberrations of laser radiation propagating through the turbulent atmosphere. The main parameters of this mirror are theoretically estimated. A technique for cooling the reflecting surface of the wavefront corrector through piezo actuators is suggested and experimentally tested. The main parameters of the deformable mirror are measured: the initial shape of the surface, the response functions of the actuators, the mirror stroke, and the frequency-amplitude characteristic of optical surface.

  • Kudryashov A.V., Sheldakova Y.V., Samarkin V.V., Parfenov V.,Nikitin A., Galaktionov I. Laser beam focusing through a moderately scattering medium using a bimorph mirror
    OPTICS EXPRESS, 2020, vol. 28, No. 25, p. 38061-38075

    The rarely considered case when the optical radiation passes through the weakly scattering medium, e.g. mid-density atmospheric fog with the number of scattering events up to 10 was investigated in this paper. We demonstrated an improvement of focusing of a laser beam (lambda=0.65 mu m) passed through the 5 mm-thick layer of scattering suspension of 1 mu m polystyrene microbeads diluted in a distilled water. For the first time the low-order aberration corrector wide aperture bimorph deformable mirror with 48 electrodes configured in 6 rings was used to optimize a far-field focal spot. We compared efficiencies of the algorithm that optimized the positions of the focal spots on Shack-Hartmann type sensor and the algorithm that optimized the peak brightness and the diameter of the far-field focal spot registered with a CCD. We experimentally demonstrated the increase of the peak brightness of the far-field focal spot by up to 60% due to the use of the bimorph deformable mirror for beam focusing through the scattering medium with concentration values of scatterers ranged from 10(5) to 10(6) mm(-3).

  • Kudryashov A.V. Sheldakova Y.V. Rukosuev A.L. Nikitin A. Galaktionov I. Real-time 1.5 kHz adaptive optical system to correct for atmospheric turbulence
    OPTICS EXPRESS, 2020, vol. 28, No. 25, p. 37546-37552

    Problems of constructing an adaptive optical system intended for correcting the wavefront of laser radiation that has passed through a turbulent atmosphere are considered. To ensure high-quality wavefront correction, the frequency of the discrete system should be at least 1 kHz or more. This performance can be achieved by using FPGA as the main control element of the system. The results of a laboratory experiments of the laser beam phase fluctuations caused by turbulence, produced by the airflow of a fan heater, correction by means of the FPGA-based adaptive optical system are presented. The system efficiency was evaluated at various correction frequencies up to 1875 Hz.

  • Soloviev A.A., Kotov A.V., Perevalov S.E., Esyunin M.V., Starodubtsev M.V., Alexandrov A.G., Galaktionov I.V., Samarkin V.V., Kudryashov A.V., Ginzburg V.N., Korobeynikova A.P., Kochetkov A.A., Kuzmin A.A., Shaykin A.A., Yakovlev I.V., Khazanov E.A. Adaptive system for wavefront correction of the PEARL laser facility
    Quantum Electronics, 2020, vol. 50, No. 12, p. 1115-1122

    The results of the operation of a wavefront correction system based on a deformable bimorph mirror of the PEARL subpetawatt laser facility are presented. An improvement in the quality of focusing of laser radiation, which led to an increase in the Strehl ratio from 0.3 to 0.6, is demonstrated. The features of the compensation for phase distortions of the wavefront in the case of a low pulse repetition rate, as well as the correct allowance for the noise of the CCD camera when calculating the Strehl ratio are investigated.

  • Kalenkov S.G., Kalenkov G.S. Digital Hyperspectral Holography
    OPTOELECTRONICS INSTRUMENTATION AND DATA PROCESSING, 2020, vol. 56, No. 2, p. 157-162

    A method and an optical scheme for recording digital hyperspectral holograms in the light of an incoherent source are considered. The optical scheme includes an interferometer with a scanning mirror for generating reference waves. The set of complex amplitudes of the object field is calculated by Fourier transform of the interferograms in each pixel of the recording matrix. Experimental data on holographic images of microobjects obtained with different optical schemes (transmission and reflection) are presented. A scheme of the common path interferometer is considered where the reference wave is part of the object field.

  • Anderzhanov E.K., Medvedev S.P., Tereza A.M., Khomik S.V., Khristoforov B.D. Shock wave and radiation at explosion of spherical HE charge inside a tube filled with xenon
    6th International Conference on Laser and Plasma Researches and Technologies, 2020, vol. 1686, No. 1, p. 012074

    The operation of a powerful source of optical radiation based on explosion of spherical HE charges in metal tubes filled with xenon was investigated. The velocity and radiative characteristics of the shock wave propagating through the tube were determined. It is shown that reflective coating of pipe walls makes it possible to increase the density of the energy flux by more than an order of magnitude as well as to improve the shape of its time dependence. A three-dimensional numerical simulation of the formation and propagation of a shock wave was performed, and a simplified method for estimating the radiation intensity was proposed.

  • Besedina A.N. Study of microseismic ambient noise in mine of Korobkovskoe ore deposit
    International Conference on Physical Mesomechanics. Materials with Multilevel Hierarchical Structure and Intelligent Manufacturing Technology, 2020, vol. 2310 , p. 020029

    In this paper microseismic ambient noise analysis is based on cross-correlation of seismic noise components and cross-spectral analysis in a sliding window in time. The velocity changes were estimated at small aperture in the high frequency range (hundreds of Hz) at the section of the fault zone of the Korobkovskoye ore deposit. The analysis carried out made it possible to determine the propagation velocity and estimate coseismic velocity changes associated with ripple-fired explosion and further relaxation.

  • Kabychenko N.V., Gorbunova E.M., Besedina A.N. Study of amplitude-frequency characteristics of water-saturated collector
    International Conference on Physical Mesomechanics. Materials with Multilevel Hierarchical Structure and Intelligent Manufacturing Technology, 2020, vol. 2310 , p. 020128

    The amplitude-frequency characteristics of a water-saturated reservoir under pressure head and non-pressure conditions were estimated for 2017-2018. The measuring wells are located at the territory of the geophysical observatory “Mikhnevo” of IDG RAS. A comparative analysis of the average monthly amplitudes of volumetric strain and groundwater level was performed. Volumetric strain and water level were calculated for period range of 0.5-28 hours in the sliding window of 0.5 hour without overlapping and for periods of semidiurnal and diurnal tidal waves.

  • Belyakov G.V., Tairova A.A., Iudochkin N.A., Molokoedov A.S. Experimental modeling of hydrofracture in a porous compressible material
    International Conference on Physical Mesomechanics. Materials with Multilevel Hierarchical Structure and Intelligent Manufacturing Technology , 2020, vol. 2310 , p. 020028

    The paper considers a laboratory study of fracture development in a porous medium as applied to hydraulic fracturing. The experiments were carried out on a Hele-Shaw cell. In the first case, the cell was filled with a compressible permeable medium into which glycerin was injected, in the second case with a compressible impermeable medium into which water was injected under pressure. As a result, the conditions for the formation of cracks were obtained, as well as the conditions for maintaining their geometry. The dependences of the fracture growth rate on the pressure of the injected fluid were obtained. Comparison of the obtained dependences showed that the rate of crack propagation does not depend on the pressure of the injected fluid, but the pressure affects its length

  • Stefanov Yu.P., Bakeev R.A., Kocharyan G.G. Block displacement in the presence of a friction spot
    International Conference on Physical Mesomechanics. Materials with Multilevel Hierarchical Structure and Intelligent Manufacturing Technology , 2020, vol. 2310 , p. 020326

    The paper presents results of numerical calculation of displacement of a geomedium block along the inclined plain in the presence of a round friction spot. Modeling reveals differences in processes for the elastic and elastoplastic media. In the elastic medium, displacement is symmetric from the spot edges. In the elastoplastic medium, gradual slip and displacement within the friction spot proceed from the edge subjected to the pushing force. Maximum increase in plastic strain is from the edge subjected to the pulling force. The calculations are performed in a 3D statement within the elastic and elastoplastic Drucker-Prager model with the nonassociated flow rule.

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak, A.A. Remote Response of an Electric Field and Atmospheric Current to Strong Earthquakes
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2020, vol. 495, No. 1, p. 835-840

    The vertical component of the electric field strength and atmospheric current variations accompanying strong earthquakes with a magnitude of more than six are analyzed on the basis of instrumental observations carried out at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory and at the Center for Geophysical Monitoring in Moscow (Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences). It is shown that the strong earthquakes cause alternating sign-time variations of the electric field or its baylike variations of positive or negative sign at significant distances from the earthquake source. In the same time, earthquakes cause variations in the atmospheric current in the form of an increase in it or alternating sign-time variations of the averaged amplitude. The present results supplement the corresponding database and may be of interest in improving the known and developing new models of the effect of earthquakes on the environment and their verification.

  • Lyakhov A.N., Korsunskaya J.A. Solar-terrestrial links and aeronomy of the middle atmosphere
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 1156083

    Contemporary 3D dynamical atmosphere models include the mesosphere as an essential element of simulation framework. Though thousands of elementary chemical processes are included as well as horizontal and vertical transport processes the quality of models is unsatisfied from the radiowave propagation point of view. Below we consider additional physical mechanism to be included in simulation. It is of solar-terrestrial links nature, namely the background processes caused by X-rays, hard X-rays and gamma rays fluxes from Sun. The reanalysis of satellite data proves that within the period of high solar activity the aforementioned fluxes exceed the C-flare level in a continuous manner. We present the satellite evidence and compare the present ionizing block with additional data from solar radiation.

  • Plaksina M.O., Ryakhovskiy I.A., Gavrilov B.G., Poklad Yu.V., Bekker S.Z. MID-LATITUDE ionospheric TEC variations during the period from 2016 to 2019 using GNSS data from the geophysical observatory «Mikhnevo»
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115608J

    This paper presents the perennial results of ionospheric vertical total electron content (TEC) variations using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data from the Geophysical Observatory «Mikhnevo». TEC long data analysis revealed a TEC annual variations and TEC decreasing trend caused by the decline in solar activity during the observation period. Spectral analysis allowed to identify 27 TEC daytime variations, which can be directly related to the period of sun rotation around its axis. Also the TEC distribution from the UV solar radiation flux was made. The linear dependence of the TEC value on the UV flux can be explained by the fact, that UV solar radiation is the main ionization agent of the F region ionosphere.

  • Krasheninnikov A.V., Loktev D.N., Soloviev S.P. Fine particles concentration registration in Geophysical Monitoring Center IDG RAS
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 1156077

    The first particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10 measurement results obtained in Moscow Geophysical monitoring center of IDG RAS are presented. The results are compared with the data from open sources - Mosecomonitoring and independent station network of Luftdaten project

  • Krasheninnikov A.V., Loktev D.N., Soloviev S.P. Near-surface electric field variations in Moscow city
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020, vol. 11560 , p. 115606J

    The study of the near-surface electric field strength variations was conducted on the basis of experimental data obtained at the Geophysical Monitoring Center of IDG RAS in Moscow and the Geophysical Observatory 'Mikhnevo'. This paper features the results of analysis of electric field variations in Moscow and in GO 'Mikhnevo' registered for the period 2015 - 2019, and specifics of daily electric field strength variations depending on the season.

  • N. Dubinya, M. Trimonova, V. Nachev Numerical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Naturally Fractured Rock Mass - A Continuous Description Perspective
    EAGE 2020 Annual Conference & Exhibition Online, 2020, vol. 2020 , p. 1-5

    The paper presents a numerical study of hydraulic fracture propagation in a naturally fractured reservoir. Instead of using discrete fracture network in the current study natural fractures are considered from the perspective of effective medium theory: natural fractures are related to inelastic strain accumulated in the medium during its deformation. Although there is no way to implement such a method to construct a specific network of fractures involved in stimulated volume, it becomes possible to evaluate some effective parameters of this network. In this particular study spatial orientation of fractures which provides potential fluid flow paths. Usage of critically stressed fracture concept makes it possible to predict the spatial orientations of hydraulically conductive natural fractures based on calculated stress tensor. In the current study stress state and spatial orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures were modeled for the problem of hydraulic fracture propagation using the extended finite element method.

  • V. Nachev, A. Kazak, S. Turuntaev The Initiation and Propagation of Fractures in 2D Digital Mineral Mechanical Modeling at the Microscale
    EAGE 2020 Annual Conference & Exhibition Online, 2020, vol. 2020 , p. 1-5

    Efficient hydraulic fracturing operations in unconventional reservoirs rocks require an extensive network of secondary fractures in addition to the primary fractures. In the current work, we study the fracture propagation at the microscale in the unconventional reservoir rocks for searching and determination of optimal stress-strain conditions leading to the most extensive network of secondary fractures at the microscale. This work describes a workflow to create a digital rock model accounting for mechanical and petrophysical features of the pore space and the constituent mineral phases in a geometry mimicking rock’s real microstructure. We applied the described method to one of the most promising gas formations in Russia’s West Siberia. Here we present the results of a model based on the 2D QEMSCAN region containing nine minerals with elastic properties, and we studied the initiation and propagation of fractures in/between elastic-plastic minerals.

  • Dubinya N.V., Nachev V.A., Trimonova M.A. A mathematical study on reactivation of natural fractures caused by initiation and propagation of hydraulic fracture
    54th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, 2020 , p. 1

    The paper describes an application of critically stressed fractures concept to study activation and reactivation of natural shear fractures existing in rock masses surrounding a hydraulic fracture during its propagation. A simplified numerical model of hydraulic fracture propagation is used to obtain stress fields near a hydraulic fracture. These stress fields are used to determine spatial orientations of natural fractures becoming critically stressed in different points of observation near the hydraulic fracture. The main tendencies of these spatial orientations are analyzed: it is shown that the greatest variation of natural fractures becomes activated at the moment of hydraulic fracture being in the closest vicinity of considered point of observation. The preferable spatial orientation of critically stressed fractures is shown to be in a close connection to the current position of hydraulic fracture's tip. The main parameters governing the natural fractures' activation are discussed providing an opportunity to use the proposed algorithm to optimize hydraulic fracturing in naturally fractured reservoirs.

  • Nachev V.A., Kazak, A.V., Turuntaev, S.B. 3D digital mineral-mechanical modeling of complex reservoirs rocks for understanding fracture propagation at microscale
    SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference 2020, 2020 , p. 1

    Increasing the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing operations in complex reservoir rocks requires creating an extensive network of fractures to improve the drainage zone of the field development. The research aims at understanding the stress-strain conditions required the initiation and propagation of mechanical fractures during well-bore zone stimulation in tight reservoir rocks. We investigate at the microscale, taking into account the mineral heterogeneity, matrix structure, elastic-plastic properties of minerals, and their intergranular contacts. The research relies on experimental data performed on modern laboratory equipment and the use of applied simulation software. We propose an integral physico-mathematical model of the propagation of three-dimensional fractures at the microscale. The model accounts for the granular composition and structure of the sample, its elastic-plastic properties, and conditions at the intergranular contacts. We discuss a set of experimental methods and research necessary for numerical simulation of fracture propagation at the microscale, taking into account the heterogeneous mineral composition of the reservoir rock. The paper shows the results of mathematical elastic-plastic modeling of stress-strain state and fracture propagation in two-dimensional and three-dimensional models with the complex geometry of contacts between minerals. Finally, we make conclusions about the possibility of using the results obtained in optimizing the parameters of hydraulic fracturing.

  • E. Novikova, M. Trimonova The Advantage of Studying Pressure Curves Obtained from Laboratory Hydraulic Fracturing Experiments
    EAGE 2020 Annual Conference & Exhibition Online, 2020, vol. 2020 , p. 1-5

    This paper presents a study of processing the pressure-time curves obtained during a series of laboratory hydraulic fracturing experiments. The purpose of the study was to determine the time and pressure of the fracture closure using the G-function method, as well as to determine the permeability of model reservoir samples that were used in the laboratory experiments designed to create the fracture in the reservoir sample. The closure pressure values obtained during analysis were compared with the minimum stress applied to the sample in a laboratory experiment with the help of specially constructed setup. The calculated permeability values of the model sample, that was created from special mixture of gypsum and cement, were compared with the actual permeability of the model sample estimated using a special laboratory permeability test. The observed difference in the obtained values justifies the relevance of this work.

  • Kudryashov A.V., Toporovsky V.V., Samarkin V.V., Rukosuev A.L., Sheldakova J.V. Deformable mirrors for high-power lasers
    International Conference Laser Optics, 2020 , p. 9285419

    The development of laser technique and various applications of laser radiation requires the use of devices that can modify as well as correct for the wavefront of laser beams. In these cases, the use of deformable mirrors is simply very important. In the high-power laser setups, the task of correction of laser aberrations assumes the use of thermally stabilized optical elements. We consider that two types of wavefront correctors are the most well-suitable for such an application: bimorph deformable mirrors and stacked-actuator (SADM) ones. Bimorph deformable mirrors proved their reliability and could be used in high-power industrial lasers. They can perfectly correct for low-order and are simple in manufacturing. On the contrary stacked-actuator mirror can reproduce high-order wavefront aberrations and thus have high spatial resolution of control elements and might be applied in fast adaptive optical systems to correct for laser radiation distributed through turbulent media.

  • Rukosuev A.L., Starikov F.A., Volkov M.V., Bogachev V.A., Khlebnikov A.A., Nikitin A.N. 1500 Hz phase correction of dynamic turbulent distortions of the laser beam
    International Conference Laser Optics, 2020 , p. 9285809

    Experiments and numerical simulations of the phase correction of laser beam turbulent distortions have been carried out by using the adaptive optical system with the bandwidth of 1500 Hz. It has been shown that the bandwidth of adaptive optical system should be an order of magnitude greater than the bandwidth of the turbulent distortions for the effective correction.

  • Toporovsky V.V., Kudryashov A.V., Samarkin V.V., Rukosuev A.L., Panich A.A., Sokallo A.I., Malykhin A.Y. Miniature wavefront correctors based on monolithic piezostack block
    International Conference Laser Optics, 2020 , p. 9285427

    Stacked-actuator deformable mirrors (SADM) allow to compensate for wide range of wavefront distortions. They are distinguished for their large stroke of control elements, high operational speed, the possibility of correction for small-scale aberrations. The SADM with 6x6 actuators placed on the aperture 30x30 mm was developed. The thickness of mirror substrate was 1 mm. The maximal deformation stroke of the SADM was about 5 microns.

  • Rukosuev A.L., Belousov V.N., Galaktionov I.V., Nikitin A.N., Kudryashov A.V., Samarkin V.V., Sheldakova J.V. FPGA-based adaptive optical system for atmospheric applications
    International Conference Laser Optics, 2020 , p. 9285824

    Many atmospheric applications based on the laser beam passed through the Earth's atmosphere are exposed the distortion of the laser beam wavefront, which ultimately leads to a decrease in their efficiency. Such tasks include the transmission of powerful laser radiation over a distance (recharging batteries of drones and low-orbit satellites, delivering energy to hard-to-reach places, destroying fragments of space debris in low orbits), creating protected optical communication lines, increasing the resolution of telescopes, etc. One of the methods to improve the efficiency of such systems is the use of adaptive optics methods and tools that allow the wavefront correction in real time. The features of constructing such a system using FPGA as the main control element are considered.

  • Lugovtsov A.E., Kalenkov G.S., Shtanko A.E., Ustinov V.D., Vinnikov P.S., Nikitin S.Y., Priezzhev A.V. Mobile Laser Device for Express Diagnostics of Red Blood Cells Size Distribution
    International Conference Laser Optics, 2020 , p. 9285473

    An express method, based on principles of laser diffractometry, for measuring the parameters of red blood cells size distribution, such as mean size and its dispersion, is proposed. The compact mobile device has been developed for registering diffraction patterns form blood smears and their automatic analysis

  • Pavlov D.V., Besedina A.N., Gorbunova E.M., Ostapchuk A.A. Response of an aquifer to the passage of seismic waves in the close-in zone of a ripple-fired explosion in a mine
    ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2020, 2020 , p. 1

    Presented are the results of measuring variations of water level in an observation well during a ripple-fired explosion in a mine. Measurements were held in a well at the territory of one of the mining enterprises in the Belgorod district, Russia. The well is 141m deep. It penetrates to the Archean- Proterozoic complex of complicatedly dislocated rock, in which mining operations take place. The water level at the moment when the measurements started was 83.41m from the free surface. The measurements were held with sensors of two types - a sensor of water level and a 3-component seismometer, which was installed at the surface near the well head. An explosion at the mine was chosen for measurements, when one of the chambers was located extremely close to the observation well. The distance from the water level sensor, which was sunk into the well to the depth of 85.5m, to the ceiling of the chamber, in which about 10 tons of explosive was blasted, was only about 240m. The results of measurements showed that the maximal amplitude of dynamic oscillations of water level was 12mm. The main frequency of oscillations was in the range of 15-20Hz, which coincided with the frequency of the signal recorded by the seismometer. No residual changes of the water level accompanying the passage of seismic waves produced by the explosion were observed.

  • Nepeina K.S., An V.A. Variations in P-wave Travel Times Based on a Digital Seismogram Dataset
    ACOUSTICAL PHYSICS, 2020, vol. 66, No. 6, p. 647-652

    The paper presents the parameters of digital seismograms of artificial seismic events observed in from 1967 to 1990. The data were provided to the authors from the archive of the Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics (IDG RAS). Seismograms were obtained after reformatting digital records. The archived data were analyzed to obtain a posteriori information on P-wave travel times, determined from the moment of the first arrival on the record of the vertical component (Z) of the short-period channel. The practice has shown that combining these data is sufficient to compile a map of signal arrival times from seismic sources. We present the regional travel-time curve for three test sites and linear trends of P-wave travel times by calendar date, as well as an isochron map for one of the sites.

  • Riabova S. Changes in geomagnetic variations associated with the 12 January 2020 Taal volcanic eruption
    International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM, 2020, vol. 1 , p. 483-490

    The results of instrumental observations of geomagnetic variations caused by eruption of Taal Volcano on January 12, 2020 are given. Its geographical coordinates is 14.002ºN, 120.993ºE. Taal volcano is located within the Macolod Corridor in the large convergence zone between the Eurasian and Philippine tectonic plates which is characterized by active volcanism, crustal thinning, extensive faulting and block rotations. The data in the form of one-minute interval means which are available on web-site of the INTERMAGNET network are used. It is should note that low magnetic activity is observed (the geomagnetic planetary Kp-index did not exceed 2). Moreover, in presented research geomagnetic anomalies are analysis in period of seismic events which are identified by using catalogs of Geophysical Service of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia, Obninsk, Kaluzhskaya obl.), the US Geological Survey (Earthquake Hazards Program, USGS) and the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. It was found that geomagnetic anomalies are observed in the Earth's magnetic field at different distances from the volcano both during the period of its active eruption and during the period of volcanic tectonic earthquakes. It should be noted that the extraction of geomagnetic anomalies is difficult, since magnetic recordings made at the INTERMAGNET observatories contain anomalies caused by a series of earthquakes in Puerto Rico and other seismic events. In general, amplitudes of geomagnetic anomalies do not exceed tens of nT.

  • Riabova S., Spivak A., Rybnov Y. Acoustic effects of Iranian earthquake on July 08, 2019
    International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM, 2020, vol. 1 , p. 419 - 426

    The results of instrumental observations of the acoustic effects caused by stronger earthquake with the magnitude mb = 5.7 which occurred in Iran on July 08, 2019 are given. The observations were carried out at three pointes: Geophysical observatory "Mikhnevo" (54.94° N; 37.73° E), Center for geophysical monitoring in Moscow (55.70° N; 37.57° E) of Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences and at a point located in Zvenigorod town, Moscow Region (55.69° N; 36.77° E), which provided the bearing to the source of acoustic signals. Digital series of atmospheric pressure and microbaric variations are obtained by measurements using a Davis Vantage Pro 2 automated digital weather station and MB-03 microbarometer are used as intimal data. In order to isolate useful signals in the analysis of microbaric variations, we used the Multi-Channel Correlation Method which made it possible to isolate low-amplitude coherent wave signals against incoherent microbaric noise. It is shown that the earthquake caused atmospheric disturbances in the form of propagating in the stratospheric waveguide acoustic vibrations in infrasonic frequency band which were registered at distances exceeding 2700 km, as well as microbaric variations caused by seismic waves that came to the point of acoustic detection. The characteristic periods of acoustic signals caused by earthquakes are given. The energies of the acoustic source and the earthquake are estimated from the spectral characteristics of the infrasound signal propagating in the stratospheric waveguide.

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

  • ГЛАЗАЧЕВ Д.О., ПОДОБНАЯ Е.Д., ПОПОВА О.П., СВЕТЦОВ В.В., ШУВАЛОВ В.В. АППРОКСИМАЦИОННЫЕ СООТНОШЕНИЯ ДЛЯ ЭФФЕКТОВ ИЗЛУЧЕНИЯ ОТ БОЛЬШИХ МЕТЕОРНЫХ ВЗРЫВОВ И НЕБОЛЬШИХ КРАТЕРООБРАЗУЮЩИХ ИМПАКТОВ
    НАУЧНЫЕ ТРУДЫ ИНСТИТУТА АСТРОНОМИИ РАН, 2020, vol. 5, No. 2, p. 56-60

    Предложены соотношения подобия, позволяющие быстро оценить опасные последствия ударов крупных космических тел. По материалам доклада на XI международной конференции «Околоземная астрономия и космическое наследие» (30 сентября - 4 октября 2019 г., Казань).

  • КАЛЕНКОВ С.Г., КАЛЕНКОВ Г.С. ЦИФРОВАЯ ГИПЕРСПЕКТРАЛЬНАЯ ГОЛОГРАФИЯ
    АВТОМЕТРИЯ, 2020, vol. 56, No. 2, p. 56-60

    Рассмотрены способ и оптическая схема регистрации цифровых гиперспектральных голограмм в свете некогерентного источника. В состав оптической схемы входит интерферометр со сканирующим зеркалом для генерации опорных волн. Набор комплексных амплитуд объектного поля вычисляется путём фурье-преобразования интерферограмм в каждом пикселе матрицы регистрации. Приведены экспериментальные результаты голографических изображений микрообъектов, полученных на различных оптических схемах: на просвет и на отражение. Рассмотрена схема интерферометра общего пути, в которой опорная волна является частью объектного поля.

  • ПУСТОВАЛОВ А.А., ЦВЕТКОВ Л.А. ВЫСОКООБОГАЩЕННЫЙ НИКЕЛЬ-63 И ТРИТИЙ - БЕЗАЛЬТЕРНАТИВНАЯ ОСНОВА КРУПНОСЕРИЙНОГО ПРОИЗВОДСТВА БЕТА-ВОЛЬТАИЧЕСКИХ АТОМНЫХ БАТАРЕЙ
    НАНО- И МИКРОСИСТЕМНАЯ ТЕХНИКА, 2020, vol. 22, No. 1, p. 34-38

    Появление изделий микросистемной техники с энергопотреблением на уровне нано-, микро- и милливатт требует миниатюризации индивидуальных источников энергии с увеличенной продолжительностью действия, способных обеспечить должную автономность и длительность эксплуатации перспективных разработок. Преобразование энергии радиоактивного распада в электрическую - один из возможных путей решения этой задачи. В работе анализируется, какие из известных радионуклидов удовлетворяют соответствующим требованиям. Внимание сосредоточено на выборе радионуклидов, пригодных для крупносерийного, рентабельного выпуска промышленностью долгоживущих источников энергоснабжения (атомных батарей), оставляя в стороне многочисленные эксклюзивные варианты единичного изготовления.

  • С.А. Тарасов, А.Г. Гоев, С.Г. Волосов, Э.М. Горбунова, Г.Н. Иванченко, С.А. Королёв Уточнение скоростного разреза осадочной толщи методом Накамуры на новых сейсмических станциях ИДГ РАН
    Российский сейсмологический журнал, 2020, vol. 2, No. 4, p. 43-50

    Представлены результаты исследований верхней части осадочного чехла центральной части Восточно-Европейской платформы (ВЕП) по данным новой сети широкополосных сейсмических станций ИДГ РАН. Используя записи сейсмического шума для каждой станции, были рассчитаны доминирующие частотные пики методом Накамуры. Для станций «Михнево» и «Шатура», опираясь на данные глубокого бурения, установлено, что резонансный пик отвечает границе верхнедевонских – нижнекаменноугольных отложений. Полученные результаты позволяют проследить залегание указанной границы по всем станциям сети субширотного профиля, проходящего вдоль коллизионной зоны ВЕП.

  • ИПАТОВ С.И., ФЕОКТИСТОВА Е.А., СВЕТЦОВ В.В. КОЛИЧЕСТВО ОБЪЕКТОВ, СБЛИЖАЮЩИХСЯ С ЗЕМЛЕЙ, И ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ ЛУННЫХ КРАТЕРОВ В ТЕЧЕНИЕ ПОСЛЕДНЕГО МИЛЛИАРДА ЛЕТ
    АСТРОНОМИЧЕСКИЙ ВЕСТНИК. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ СОЛНЕЧНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ, 2020, vol. 54, No. 5, p. 409-430

    Проведено сравнение количества лунных кратеров с диаметром, большим 15 км, и возрастом менее 1.1 млрд лет с оценками числа кратеров таких размеров, которые могли образоваться за 1.1 млрд лет, если бы количество объектов, сближающихся с Землей, и элементы их орбит за это время были бы близки к их современным значениям. Сравнение проводилось для кратеров на всей поверхности Луны и для области в районе Океана Бурь (Oceanus Procellarum) и морей видимой стороны Луны. При этих оценках использовались значения вероятностей столкновений объектов, сближающихся с Землей, с Луной, а также зависимости диаметров кратеров от диаметров ударников. Число известных коперниканских кратеров с диаметром D ≥ 15 км на единице площади на морях по оценкам различных авторов не менее, чем в двое, превышает аналогичное число для остальной поверхности Луны. Наши оценки не противоречат увеличению количества объектов, сближающихся с Землей, после возможных катастрофических разрушений больших астероидов главного пояса, которые могли произойти в течение последних 300 млн лет, но и не доказывают это увеличение. В частности, они не противоречат выводу работы (Mazrouei и др., 2019) о том, что число столкновений околоземных астероидов с Луной за единицу времени возросло в 2.6 раза 290 млн лет назад. Число коперниканских лунных кратеров с диаметром, не меньшим 15 км, возможно больше, чем по данным (Mazrouei и др., 2019). При вероятности столкновения с Землей за год объекта, пересекающего орбиту Земли, (ОПОЗ), равной 10–8, наши оценки числа кратеров соответствуют модели, в которой число 15-км коперниканских кратеров на единице площади для всей поверхности Луны было бы таким же, как и для области морей, если бы данные (Losiak и др., 2015) для D < 30 км были бы такими же полными, как и для D > 30 км. При такой вероятности столкновения ОПОЗ с Землей и для такой модели темп кратерообразования за последний 1.1 млрд лет мог быть постоянным.

  • Кишкина С.Б., Кочарян Г.Г. ФИЗИЧЕСКАЯ МЕЗОМЕХАНИКА ОЧАГА ЗЕМЛЕТРЯСЕНИЯ
    ФИЗИЧЕСКАЯ МЕЗОМЕХАНИКА, 2020, vol. 23, No. 6, p. 9-24

    В статье приведен краткий обзор основных результатов, полученных в последние годы при исследовании процессов скольжения по разломам. Опубликованные гипотезы и данные проанализированы на основе подхода, предложенного В.Е. Паниным, согласно которому геосреда рассматривается как многоуровневая иерархически организованная система, в которой все процессы самосогласованно эволюционируют на нано-, микро-, мезо- и макромасштабном уровнях. Основное внимание в обзоре уделено иерархии структур, которые, согласно современным представлениям, формируют зону скольжения сейсмогенного разлома, а также их взаимосвязи с механическими характеристиками поверхностей локализации скольжения и микроконтактов, которые определяют динамику скольжения разломных зон на макроуровне. Показано, что эволюция свойств контактов частиц заполнителя зоны скольжения определяет не только возможность возникновения неустойчивости, но и способность разлома к восстановлению прочности со временем. Описана простейшая схема иерархии макрошероховатостей, которая позволяет отразить важное положение о том, что старт, эволюция и остановка сейсмогенного разрыва определяются размерами и взаимным расположением областей, обладающих разной динамикой фрикционных характеристик в процессе скольжения. Выполненный анализ результатов натурных наблюдений показывает, что точность наблюдений и неоднозначность интерпретации решения обратной задачи не позволяют пока уверенно идентифицировать участки разломов, обладающих свойствами скоростного разупрочнения. Более достоверно установить размеры и расположение этих зон может позволить анализ результатов регистрации высокочастотных колебаний в окрестности разрыва землетрясения. При этом хорошую основу для интерпретации таких результатов создают базовые представления физической мезомеханики.

Прочие публикации

  • Kuzmicheva M.Yu., Kosarev I.B. Modeling of injection of aluminum plasma jet to the upper atmosphere at the initial stage of active geophysical rocket experiment
    26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric Physics, 2020 , p. 115608B

    The problem of modeling the injection of an aluminum jet of a plasma generator into the upper atmosphere during an Active Geophysical experiment is considered. The high-speed jet is a calibrated source of exposure. The gas-dynamic parameters of the jet are calculated. It is shown that in a rapidly expanding jet a violation of thermodynamic equilibrium occurs, causing to "freezing" of the ionic composition. The plasma jet interacts with the atmosphere and the geomagnetic field, causing the glow, the formation of a "diamagnetic cavity", and the generation of electromagnetic waves.

  • Ivanov Boris A. Asteroid Impacts and Their Geological Consequences
    , 2020 , p. 169-182

    A review of available data on the impact cratering in the Solar System is presented. Most of data have been collected during robotic space missions to the Moon and other terrestrial planets. The main attention is attracted to morphology and morphometry of impact craters, comparable is size with the Puchezh-Katunki structure. All these craters have clearly visible central mound. Crater’s depth-diameter relations on planetary bodies with various surface gravity accelerations demonstrate that the simple-to-complex transitional crater diameter increases with decreasing of the surface gravity. The original depth of the Puchezh-Katunki structure and the presence of the central uplift well fit general trends, observed for impact craters on all planetary bodies of the terrestrial type.

  • Ivanov Boris A. Modeling of the Impact Structure Origin
    , 2020 , p. 183-210

    The numerical model of the Puchezh-Katunki formation processes is described. The model results are preceded with a short description of all model components: the concept of hydrocodes, rock equation of states, brittle/ductile rock damaging, and the acoustic fluidization (AF) model.

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в базу реферативной информации Web of Science, Scopus

  • Borisov V., Ivanov A., Kritskiy B., Menshov I., Savenkov E.B., Trimonova M., Turuntaev S.B., Zenchenko E.V. Analysis of Poroelastic Laboratory Experiments Using Numerical Simulation Techniques
    PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT PROCESSES, 2019 , p. 244-252

    This research is aimed at the study of the numerical simulation of the laboratory experiment results. Namely, this work shows the results of numerical modeling the filtration process that takes place in the laboratory experiment on a gypsum/cement sample. Numerical simulator is three-dimensional and based on the Biot poroelastic theory. The laboratory experiments are aimed at the study of hydraulic fracturing with account of the fracturing fluid leak-off. This study is the first part of the total numerical-experimental simulation of the hydraulic fracturing and its aim is to test the assumptions in which both the laboratory model and the numerical one were created. As a result of the research, a great influence of the gas presence on the filtration was found. Because of the gas presence, the fluid filtration was much slower in the experiment than in the numerical simulation. Although the numerical model of the filtration process is single-phase, we have invented a method for counting the gas phase presence in the sample. Thanks to this, we were able to reproduce the results of the experiment.

  • Baryshnikov N.A., Zenchenko E.V., Turuntaev S.B. The Change in the Permeability of an Ultra-Low Permeable Limestone Sample Under the Influence of Confining Pressure During the Loading-Unloading Cycle
    PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT PROCESSES (2018), 2019 , p. 261-266

    The objective of this research was to study the long-term response of filtration properties of a porous rock sample to external confining pressure. An experimental dependence of the ultra-low-permeable limestone sample permeability on time during the loading-unloading cycle with duration of 29 days was obtained. As a result of the loading, the sample permeability decreased by more than one and a half times. The decrease was linear with time, while there was practically no visible permeability elastic reaction to an abrupt change in external load. An experimental study of the flow stabilizing process in the sample was also conducted. It is shown that the characteristic time of stabilization, both theoretically estimated and measured, is much less than the characteristic time at which the permeability change occurred during the main loading experiment. This allows us to conclude that the observed change in the permeability of the sample is related with its viscous deformation.

  • Tairova A A., Belyakov G.V. Measurement of Gas Dynamic Parameters in the Gap at the Evaporation of Its Walls
    PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT PROCESSES (2018), 2019 , p. 317-322

    The results of a study aimed at optimization of heat methods of hydrocarbon extractions. These methods give the possibility of mining the shale solid minerals at great depths. This paper reviews the heat flow effect on the unconventional hydrocarbon reservoir model. The mechanism of filtration and propagation of exothermic reaction in a gap is considered. The results of measuring the gas-dynamic parameters in the gap during the melting and evaporation of its walls, obtained during laboratory studies are presented. The fracture of a shale layer was simulated by a gap with constant cross section area which was created in poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA or Plexiglas) previously. The gap was blown through the gas flow; its speed was measured by experiments. The gas flow was created by continuously working turbine driven pump. The pressure in the flow was determined by manometer. The values of flow rates, evaporation and entrainment of the mass of material from the surface of the gap are recorded.

  • Ostapchuk A.A., Pavlov D.V., Ruzhich V.V. Seismic-Acoustics of a Block Sliding Along a Fault
    Seismic-Acoustics of a Block Sliding Along a Fault, 2019, vol. 177, No. 6, p. 2641-2651

    Frictional instability is the most likely mechanism of shallow earthquakes. For better understanding fault behavior we have conducted field experiments on shear deformation of a model fault. This study has focused on revealing the seismic-acoustic signatures of fault behavior. The entire spectrum of sliding regimes has been realized in the course of 1-m scale experiments-from a stable creep to a regular stick-slip, and their seismic-acoustic characteristics were investigated. It is shown that seismic pulses with characteristic frequencies less than 500 Hz are emitted only during slip events. The acoustic emission (AE) is observed both during slip events and at the stage of their preparation. Statistical analysis has shown that the AE distribution is generally a superposition of a power law distribution for low-energy pulses and a peak-like distribution for the largest pulses. The distribution with a characteristic peak prevails in regular stick-slip, while (quasi)stable creep is characterized by the power law distribution over the entire range of amplitudes. Both distributions-"with peak" and "without peak"-are observed for irregular sliding regime (random slip events with various amplitudes). Applying the nonlinear Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm to the analysis of time-series of AE data has allowed to rank the fault sliding regimes. The calculated correlation dimension characterizes the dynamics of the fault. The highest dimension is typical for stable sliding. A decrease of the correlation dimension indicates an enhanced probability of high-amplitude slip events. Nucleation of largest slip events is observed for the regular stick-slip with the least correlation dimension.

  • Nikolayshvili S., Kozlov S., Platov Y., Repin A. Dynamics of the gas-dust cloud observed in the upper atmosphere on October 26, 2017
    ACTA ASTRONAUTICA, 2019, vol. 163 , p. 133-137

    The results of the study of the gas-dust cloud of solid fuel combustion products dynamics formed under a rocket stages separation are presented. The sequence of the digital images obtained in the twilight condition at a distance of similar to 1500 km from the missile trajectory was analyzed. The height of the cloud center reaches up to similar to 900 km, and its diameter is similar to 2000 km. The glow of the cloud is determined by the scattering of sunlight on dispersed particles of the combustion products. The obtained data allow to specify the dispersed composition of the cloud and dynamic parameters of its development. The proposed methodology can be used to clarify the physical picture of the interaction of the combustion products of solid propellant with the environment, as well as environmental conditions and processes in the upper atmosphere.

  • Lorenz C., Ivanova M., Krot A., Shuvalov V. Formation of disk- and bowl-shaped igneous Ca,Al-rich inclusions: Constraints from their morphology, textures, mineralogy and modelling
    GEOCHEMISTRY, 2019, vol. 79, No. 4, p. 125523

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest Solar System solids dated that formed by evaporation, condensation, aggregation and, sometimes, melting processes near the protoSun, and were subsequently dispersed throughout the protoplanetary disk by still poorly-understood mechanism(s). Here we report on the discovery of disk- and bowl-shaped centimeter-sized igneous CAIs in CV (Vigarano type) carbonaceous chondrites. Igneous CAIs of these shapes are not expected for crystallization of melt droplets in a low gravity field of the protoplanetary disk. We have tested several models for the formation of disk- and bowl-shaped igneous CAIs including: collision, aerodynamic deformation and shock flattening. We conclude that these CAIs resulted from aerodynamic deformation of CAI-like melt droplets and propose the following multistage formation scenario: (1) nearly complete melting and acceleration of CAIs at < 30 km/s in the CAI-forming region having approximately solar dust/gas ratio; (2) aerodynamic deformation, ablation, deceleration, solidification at similar to 30-40 K/min, Wark-Lovering rims formation, and deceleration of the CAIs entering a dust-rich inner disk wall; (3) radial drift of the solidified deformed CAIs towards the Sun; (4) heating and partial melting of the deformed CAIs by solar radiation that preserve their morphology; (5) cooling and crystallization of CAIs at similar to 2 K/h; (5) radial transport of CAIs from their formation region to the outer disk.

  • Jenniskens P., Popova O.P., Glazachev D.O., Podobnaya E.D., Kartashova A.P. Tunguska eyewitness accounts, injuries, and casualties
    ICARUS, 2019, vol. 327 , p. 4-18

    The airburst events at Chelyabinsk and Tunguska in Russia are the best-documented asteroid impacts of recent times. Models that assess the potential danger from such events rely on an accurate picture of their aftermath. Here, we re-examine the most critical eyewitness accounts of the Tunguska airburst, namely those that describe injuries and casualties, and those that paint a picture of what events were responsible. Not all relevant information has survived in the written record and there are contradictions that create some ambiguity. We find that inside and near the tree-fall area were at least 30 people. Many lost consciousness and at least 3 passed away (immediately or later) as a direct consequence of the Tunguska event. The airburst created a butterfly-shaped pattern of glass damage extending 4-5 times wider than that seen at Chelyabinsk. At these larger distances, any injuries from falls, shattering glass cuts, or from UV radiation exposure were not reported.

  • Artemieva N., Shuvalov V.V., Khazins V.M. Upper atmosphere effects after the entry of small cosmic bodies: Dust trains, plumes, and atmospheric disturbances
    ICARUS, 2019, vol. 327 , p. 60-71

    In this paper we present the results of numerical modeling of the Chelyabinsk dust train during the first 3 min after the meteoroid entry which are in qualitative agreement with observations. Then we analyze the possibility of plume formation after impacts of small cosmic bodies and make some calculations for the Tunguska event which, unfortunately, cannot be compared directly with observations. We also estimate long-lasting disturbances in the upper atmosphere caused by the plume formation.

  • Bart G.D., Daubar I.J., Ivanov B.A. Dark halos produced by current impact cratering on Mars
    ICARUS, 2019, vol. 328 , p. 45-47

    Hundreds of new impact craters have been observed to form on Mars since spacecraft began imaging that planet. New impact craters produced visible ejecta deposits and many of them also have visible rays, similar to lunar and mercurian craters. However, some of the new martian impact craters have a circular feature of relatively low reflectance that we call a "halo." This feature is distinct from the usual visible ejecta deposits or ray patterns. In this paper we present an observational study of this halo feature and we discuss the results of this study with respect to the nature of the halos: what they are and how they may have formed. To address these questions, we measured diameters of both halos and their central craters. We found a strong correlation between halo diameter and crater diameter, which indicates that the nature of the halos is fundamentally governed by the amount of impact energy available at their formation. Specifically, halo size is controlled by impact energy according to the non-linear relationship D-H proportional to E-2/3, where D-H is the diameter of the halo and E is the impact energy. We also found that certain factors may influence the formation of the halos: a thicker dust layer and lower elevations are both correlated with larger halos. From these correlations we conclude that the local surface characteristics as well as local atmospheric pressure influence the formation of the halos. Our description and analysis of the martian halo features provide a framework upon which specific halo formation mechanisms can be developed and tested in the future.

  • Luther R., Artemieva N., Wunnemann K. The effect of atmospheric interaction on impact ejecta dynamics and deposition
    ICARUS, 2019, vol. 333 , p. 71-86

    Fine dust from impact ejecta settles slowly in an atmosphere, whereas large chunks of ejecta easily traverse the surrounding gas on nearly parabolic trajectories. In order to study the effects of the interaction of impact ejecta with an atmosphere, we implemented a "representative particle" approach into the iSALE-2D shock physics code. We verify the modelling approach using analytical equilibrium sedimentation velocities, and successfully benchmark the results against simulations with the shock physics code SOYA. We study vertical dust settling scenarios of different initial mass and dust size (100 mu m - 10 cm), and find three different regimes of settling - sedimentation, formation of density currents, and the free-fall. Based on this, we model natural ejecta curtains for craters from 200 m - 4 km in radius, and small craters in the laboratory for different atmospheric pressures from 1 kPa - 6 MPa. We assess the range of ballistic ejecta deposition within an atmosphere in terms of ejecta thickness and deposition velocity.

  • Derossi A., Gerke K.M., Karsanina M.V., Nicolai B., Verboven P., Severini C. Mimicking 3D food microstructure using limited statistical information from 2D cross-sectional image
    JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING, 2019 , p. 116-126

    We used statistical correlation functions (CFs) to describe food microstructure and to reconstruct their 3121 complexity by using limited information coming from single 213 microtomographic images. Apple fleshy parenchyma tissue and muffin crumb were chosen to test the ability of the reconstructions to mimic structural diversities. Several metrics based on morphological measures and cluster functions were utilized to analyze the fidelity of reconstructions. For the apple, reconstructions are accurate enough proving that lineal, L-2, and two-point, S-2, functions sufficiently describe the complexity of apple tissue. Muffin structure is isotropic but statistically inhomogeneous showing at least two different porosity domains which reduced the fidelity of reconstructions. Further improvement could be obtained by using more CFs as input data and by implementation of the techniques dealing with statistical non-stationarity. Novel stochastic reconstruction and CF-based characterization methods could improve the fidelity of reconstruction and future advances of this technology will allow estimating macroscopic food properties based on (limited) 2/3D input information.

  • Krasnoshchekov D., Ovtchinnikov V., Polishchuk V. Dissimilarity of the Earth's Inner Core Surface Under South America and Northeastern Asia Revealed by Core Reflected Phases
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH, 2019, vol. 124, No. 5, p. 4862-4878

    Resolving topography of the inner core boundary (ICB) and the structure and composition of the nearby region is key to improving our understanding of solidification of the Earth's inner core. Observations of travel times and amplitudes of short-period seismic phases of PKiKP and PcP reflected, respectively, off the inner and outer boundary of the liquid core, provide essential constraints on the properties of this region. We revisit heterogeneities of ICB using a total of more than 1,300 new differential travel times and amplitude ratios of PKiKP and PcP measured at 3.2-35.2 degrees and reflected off the core's boundaries under Northeastern Asia and South America. We observe a statistically significant systematic bias between the measurements collected in the two spots. We carefully examine its origin in terms of contributions by various Earth's shells and find that most of variance in PKiKP-PcP differential travel times measured above the epicentral distance of 16.5 degrees in Northeastern Asia can be accounted for by mantle corrections. We find slight disparity of about 1-3 km between the outer core thickness under Asia and America; the ICB density jump under Northeastern Asia is about 0.3 g/cm(3), which is three times as small as under South America. The findings are interpretable either as evidence for inner core hemispherical asymmetry, whereby crystallization dominates in the West and melting in the East (not vice versa), or in terms of two disconnected mosaic patches with contrasting properties.

  • Zhu M.H., Artemieva N., Morbidelli A., Yin Q.Z., Becker H., Wunnemann K. Reconstructing the late-accretion history of the Moon
    NATURE, 2019, vol. 571, No. 7764, p. 226

    The importance of highly siderophile elements (HSEs; namely, gold, iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium and ruthenium) in tracking the late accretion stages of planetary formation has long been recognized. However, the precise nature of the Moon's accretional history remains enigmatic. There is a substantial mismatch in the HSE budgets of the Earth and the Moon, with the Earth seeming to have accreted disproportionally more HSEs than the Moon(1). Several scenarios have been proposed to explain this conundrum, including the delivery of HSEs to the Earth by a few big impactors(1), the accretion of pebble-sized objects on dynamically cold orbits that enhanced the Earth's gravitational focusing factor(2), and the 'sawtooth' impact model, with its much reduced impact flux before about 4.10 billion years ago(3). However, most of these models assume a high impactor-retention ratio (the fraction of impactor mass retained on the target) for the Moon. Here we perform a series of impact simulations to quantify the impactor-retention ratio, followed by a Monte Carlo procedure considering a monotonically decaying impact flux(4), to compute the impactor mass accreted into the lunar crust and mantle over their histories. We find that the average impactor-retention ratio for the Moon's entire impact history is about three times lower than previously estimated(1,3). Our results indicate that, to match the HSE budgets of the lunar crust and mantle(5,6), the retention of HSEs should have started 4.35 billion years ago, when most of the lunar magma ocean was solidified(7,8). Mass accreted before this time must have lost its HSEs to the lunar core, presumably during lunar mantle crystallization(9). The combination of a low impactor-retention ratio and a late retention of HSEs in the lunar mantle provides a realistic explanation for the apparent deficit of the Moon's late-accreted mass relative to that of the Earth.

  • Bakeev, R.A., Stefanov Yu.P., Kocharyan G.G. Stages of Strike-Slip Faulting and Block Structure Dynamics
    PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED MATERIALS WITH HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE FOR NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND RELIABLE STRUCTURES 2019, 2019, vol. 2167 , p. 020025

    In the paper, we present results of numerical investigation of the formation of the main fault and feathering fault structures in the sedimentary layer in strike slip of the base blocks. Main stages of the strike slip process are distinguished. The initial stage is characterized by the most gradual development of deformation, resulting in multiple discontinuities in the fault tip at the bottom of the sedimentary layer as well as in localization bands in surface layers. At the next stage the geomedium blocks are further displaced along feathering faults, with the displacement velocity considerably increasing at the moment of the fault arrival at the surface. The final stage is the coalescence of faults in the upper and lower parts and main faulting. During the process, displacements of different velocity and direction appear at the surface depending on the site and stage of faulting. The high-frequency component of surface vibrations is related to the medium fracture, arrival of discontinuities at the surface, their coalescence and main cracking. The low-frequency component is related to the development of plastic deformation and block motion. Thus, the analysis of displacement velocity and direction at different surface points can be useful for the estimation of a stage of faulting and its hazard.

  • Besedina A.N Investigation of the Preparation Process of Seismic Events with the Help of Seismic Noise Analysis
    PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED MATERIALS WITH HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE FOR NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND RELIABLE STRUCTURES 2019, 2019, vol. 2167 , p. 020034

    The ability to identify the preparation process of seismic events using spectral analysis of microseismic noise was earlier shown in laboratory experiment in the form of reduction of natural frequency of oscillations during the transition of the system to a metastable state. Field studies of the Chilean subduction zone allowed us to identify large earthquakes with the same effects before them. In this paper investigation of the natural frequencies of block oscillations, which can be detected in the spectrum of seismic noise, was performed at a lower scale. Measurements were performed near Gubkin (Belgorod region, Russia), where the development of iron ore deposits and explosive works are carried out regularly. We used the data of the high-frequency accelerometer that was installed at the depth of 300 m from the surface. Spectral centroid reduction in the frequency range of 20-1200 Hz was identified before small seismic events with the amplitude of more than 10 mm/s(2).

  • Kabychenko N.V., Gorbunova E.M., Besedina A.N. Deformation Mode of Water-Saturated Collector by Precision Hydrogeological Monitoring
    PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED MATERIALS WITH HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE FOR NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND RELIABLE STRUCTURES 2019, 2019, vol. 2167 , p. 020142

    In this paper we use the data of precision monitoring of confined aquifer at the territory of the Mikhnevo geophysical observatory in 2017-2018. New approach for identifying tidal waves in noisy initial data was applied. Comparative analysis of the main types of tidal waves in underground water level and theoretical volumetric strain of water-saturated reservoir was carried out. Such technique can be used for detection the main direction of water-bearing cracks, which can change in dependence on filtration mode of reservoir.

  • Goncharov E.S., Lyakhov A.N., Loseva T.V. 3D-FEM simulation model of the Earth-ionosphere cavity
    JOURNAL OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND APPLICATIONS, 2019, vol. 33, No. 6, p. 734-742

    Radio waves of extremely low frequencies (5-40Hz) propagate in a special way. Since their wavelengths correspond to the Earth's radius, global resonances are found inside the cavity bounded by the Earth's surface and the lower ionosphere. These so-called Schumann resonances form a system of standing waves around the planet. They can be a powerful tool for investigating the electrical processes occurring in the lower ionosphere. This paper describes finite element method (FEM) simulations in the frequency domain of Schumann eigenmodes in 3D inhomogeneous Earth-ionosphere cavity. Such an approach provides result independence from source configuration and allows to separate ionosphere configuration influence on Schumann resonances. Also the approach visually reproduces line splitting in the global resonances. The ionosphere was modeled by a simple conventional vertical conductivity profile and by means of a complex 22-species plasmachemical model. Obtained simulation results are compared with the experiment and discussed.

  • Kalenkov G.S., Kalenkov S.G., Meerovich I.G., Shtanko A.E., Zaalishvili N.Y. Hyperspectral holographic microscopy of bio-objects based on a modified Linnik interferometer
    LASER PHYSICS, 2019, vol. 29, No. 1, p. 016201

    We present a modified Linnik microinterferometer that can register image-plane hyperspectral holograms in reflection of various microobjects in incoherent light. A voice coil was integrated into the reference arm of the interferometer to enable mirror displacement. A set of interferograms is registered in each pixel of a high-speed CMOS camera. Post processing yields spectrally resolved image-plane holograms of the object. Quantitative phase images of red blood cells are obtained for each spectral component sigma = 1\lambda.

  • Riabova S., Spivak A. Features of atmospheric tide according to the Geophysical observatory Mikhnevo
    TURBULENCE, ATMOSPHERE AND CLIMATE DYNAMICS, 2019, vol. 231 , p. 012044

    Atmospheric tides refer to those oscillations in the atmosphere whose periods are integral fractions of a lunar or solar day. Atmospheric tides are, in small measure, gravitationally forced, they are primarily forced by daily variations in solar insolation. Based on the results of instrumental observations of micropulsations of atmospheric pressure, the main waves of the lunar-solar tide in the Earth's atmosphere are identified. The registration of micropulsations is obtained in the range from 0.1 MHz to 10 Hz in the Geophysical observatory Mikhnevo of Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences located in the Moscow region in period 2008-2016. An estimate of the spectral characteristics of micropulsations was carried out using the maximum entropy method. In order to increase the level of discrimination related to the frequencies of tidal waves, the adaptive rejection filtering method was applied. It is shown that the spectral amplitudes with frequencies that coincide with the frequencies of the tidal waves change with time with a periodicity of about 29 days. The characteristics of modulation of the solar elliptic wave S-1 and the main solar wave S-2 by periods of 13.66, 27.55 days are obtained; as well as similar to 0.3, 0.5 and 1 year.

  • Gerke K.M., Karsanina M.V., Katsman R. Calculation of tensorial flow properties on pore level: Exploring the influence of boundary conditions on the permeability of three-dimensional stochastic reconstructions
    PHYSICAL REVIEW E, 2019, vol. 100, No. 5, p. 053312

    While it is well known that permeability is a tensorial property, it is usually reported as a scalar property or only diagonal values are reported. However, experimental evaluation of tensorial flow properties is problematic. Pore-scale modeling using three-dimensional (3D) images of porous media with subsequent upscaling to a continuum scale (homogenization) is a valuable alternative. In this study, we explore the influence of different types of boundary conditions on the external walls of the representative modeling domain along the applied pressure gradient on the magnitude and orientation of the computed permeability tensor. To implement periodic flow boundary conditions, we utilized stochastic reconstruction methodology to create statistically similar (to real porous media structures) geometrically periodic 3D structures. Stochastic reconstructions are similar to encapsulation of the porous media into statistically similar geometrically periodic one with the same permeability tensor. Seven main boundary conditions (BC) were implemented: closed walls, periodic flow, slip on the walls, linear pressure, translation, symmetry, and immersion. The different combinations of BCs amounted to a total number of 15 BC variations. All these BCs significantly influenced the resulting tensorial permeabilities, including both magnitude and orientation. Periodic boundary conditions produced the most physical flow patterns, while other classical BCs either suppressed crucial transversal flows or resulted in unphysical currents. Our results are crucial to performing flow properties upscaling and will be relevant to computing not only single-phase but also multiphase flow properties. Moreover, other calculation of physical properties such as some mechanical, transport, or heat conduction properties may benefit from the technique described in this study.

  • Gavrilov B.G., Zetzer Y.I., Poklad Y.V., Ryakhovskiy I.A., Lyakhov A.N., Rybakov V.A., Ermak V.M. Investigation of the atmosphere and ionosphere by the radiophysical measuring complex of the 'mikhnevo' geophysical observatory
    Russian Open Conference on Radio Wave Propagation, 2019 , p. 171 - 174

    A study of appearance and spatio-temporal dynamics of disturbances of the atmosphere, the upper and lower ionosphere, require of integrated investigations of interrelated processes at different altitudes and in different geophysical conditions. In the observatory of IDG RAS "Mikhnevo" created the unique radiophysical complex, allowing to carry out of coordinated measurements of variations of the geomagnetic field, propagation of SW, LW and VLF radio signals, variations of electric fields and atmospheric currents. Analysis of the data of measurements of the total electron content of the ionosphere with phase and amplitude of the signals of LF-VLF range on global and regional routes allows to obtain data on the features of the structure and dynamics of the ionospheric plasma in the mid-latitude zone of the European part of the Russian Federation. The coordinated analysis of GNSS and VLF signals makes it possible to study the mechanisms of the relationship between the perturbations of the upper and lower ionosphere and the dynamics of the ionosphere in the horizontal and vertical directions

  • Krasheninnikov A., Soloviev S., Rybnov Y., Solovyov A. Atmospheric pressure and electric field variations during auroras
    Russian Open Conference on Radio Wave Propagation, 2019 , p. 548 - 551

    The analysis of atmospheric pressure and electric field strength variations field observations in GPhO 'Mikhnevo' was carried out. It is shown that during the development of auroras, synchronous variations in pressure and electric field strength in the surface layer of the atmosphere, as well as changes in the electric field characteristic for the development of a magnetic storm, can occur. The cross-correlation of these values was investigated, which showed a link between them.

  • Poklad Y.V., Gavrilov B.G., Ermak V.M., Lyakhov A.N., Rybakov V.A., Ryakhovskiy I.A. Recovery of the parameters of the D-layer of the ionosphere according to the amplitude-phase measurements on the dual-frequency VLF path
    Russian Open Conference on Radio Wave Propagation, 2019 , p. 240 - 243

    The paper presents a technique for recovery of the electron concentration profile, based on the two-parameter model of the D-layer of the ionosphere from measurements of the amplitude and phase variations of the VLF radio signal at two frequencies during a solar X-ray flash. Solar X-ray flash of the X8.2 class was processed in accordance with this technique. It was shown that the parameters of the ionosphere during the X-ray flash mainly depend on the radiation flux in the range of 0.05-0.4 nm. The dependence of the parameters of the ionosphere on the flow in the range of 0.1-0.8 nm is expressed to a much lesser extent.

  • Svetsov V., Shuvalov V. Thermal radiation from impact plumes
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2019, vol. 54, No. 1, p. 126-141

    Plumes produced by the impacts of asteroids and comets consist of rock vapor and heated air. They emit visible light, ultraviolet, and infrared radiation, which can greatly affect the environment. We have carried out numerical simulations of the impacts of stony and cometary bodies with a diameter of 0.3, 1, and 3 km, which enter the atmosphere at various angles, using a hydrodynamic model supplemented by radiation transfer. We assumed that the cosmic object has no strength, and deforms, fragments, and vaporizes in the atmosphere. After the impact on the ground, the formation of craters and plumes was simulated, taking the internal friction of destroyed rocks and the trail formed in the atmosphere into account. The equation of radiative transfer, added to the equations of gas dynamics, was used in the approximation of radiative heat conduction or, if the Rosseland optical depth of a radiating volume of gas and vapor was less than unity, in the volume-emission approximation. We used temperature and density distributions obtained in these simulations to calculate radiation fluxes on the Earth's surface by integrating the equation of radiative transfer along rays passing through a luminous region. We used tables of the equation of state of dunite and quartz (for stony impactors and a target) and air, as well as tables of absorption coefficients of air, vapor of ordinary chondrite, and vapor of cometary material. We have calculated the radiation impulse on the ground and the impact radiation efficiency (a ratio of thermal radiation energy incident on the ground to the kinetic energy of a body), which ranges from similar to 0.5% to similar to 9%, depending on the impactor size and the angle of entry into the atmosphere. Direct thermal radiation from fireballs and impact plumes, poses a great danger to people, animals, plants, and economic objects. After the impacts of asteroids at a speed of 20 km s(-1) at an angle of 45 degrees, a fire can occur at a distance of 250 km if the asteroid has a diameter of 0.3 km, and at a distance of 2000 km if the diameter is 3 km.

  • Artemieva N., Shuvalov V. ospheric shock waves after impacts of cosmic bodies up to 1000 m in diameter
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2019, vol. 54, No. 3, p. 592-608

    The results of numerical modeling of meteoroids' interaction with Earth's atmosphere are presented. We model the entry in two dimensions and then interpolate the results into a 3-D model to calculate interaction of shock waves with the surface. Maximum shock pressures, wind speeds, and areas subjected to substantial overpressure are calculated for oblique impacts of asteroids and comets. We show that vertical impacts produce a smaller damage zone on the surface than oblique ones. Damage caused by shock waves covers an order of magnitude larger area than any other hazardous effects. The function of energy release in the atmosphere, which is traditionally used in meteoritics, has a limited application if cosmic bodies are larger than tens of meters in diameter: at each time moment energy is smoothed along a substantial length of the trajectory; both emitted radiation (routinely used for calibration of semi-analytical models) and shock wave amplitude are complex functions of temperature-density distributions in atmosphere.

  • Koeberl C, Ivanov B.A. Asteroid impact effects on Snowball Earth
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2019, vol. 54, No. 10, p. 2273-2285

    Several Snowball Earth periods, in which the Earth has been (almost) totally glaciated, are known from Earth history. Neither the trigger for the initiation, nor the reason for the ending of such phases, are well understood. Here we discuss some mechanical effects of the impact of asteroids 5-10 km in diameter on the Snowball Earth environment. An impact of this scale is the largest impact that is statistically predictable for 10-60 Myr time periods. The impact cratering itself (shock waves, impact crater formation) is not powerful enough to change the natural climate evolution path on Earth. However, the products of impact (mainly-water vapor) can be quickly distributed over a substantial part of the globe, influencing the global circulation (e.g., facilitating cloud formation). It is a question for future studies to confirm if such an event (which is possible statistically during this interval) may or may not have influenced the global climate of the Snowball Earth, and/or contributed to deglaciation.

  • Borovicka J., Popova O., Spurny P. The Maribo CM2 meteorite fallSurvival of weak material at high entry speed
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2019, vol. 54, No. 5, p. 1024-1041

    High entry speed (>25kms(-1)) and low density (<2500kgm(-3)) are the two factors that lower the chance of a meteoroid to drop meteorites. The 26g carbonaceous (CM2) meteorite Maribo recovered in Denmark in 2009 was delivered by a bright bolide observed by several instruments across northern and central Europe. By reanalyzing the available data, we confirmed the previously reported high entry speed of (28.3 +/- 0.3) kms(-1) and trajectory with slope of 31 degrees to the horizontal. In order to understand how such a fragile material survived, we applied three different models of meteoroid atmospheric fragmentation to the detailed bolide light curve obtained by radiometers located in Czech Republic. The Maribo meteoroid was found to be quite inhomogeneous with different parts fragmenting at different dynamic pressures. While 30-40% of the (2000 +/- 1000) kg entry mass was destroyed already at 0.02 MPa, another 25-40%, according to different models, survived without fragmentation up to the relatively large dynamic pressures of 3-5 MPa. These pressures are only slightly lower than the measured tensile strengths of hydrated carbonaceous chondrite (CC) meteorites and are comparable with usual atmospheric fragmentation pressures of ordinary chondritic (OC) meteoroids. While internal cracks weaken OC meteoroids in comparison with meteorites, this effect seems to be absent in CC, enabling meteorite delivery even at high speeds, though in the form of only small fragments.

  • Galaktionov I., Kudryashov A., Nikitin A.N,. Rukosuev A., Samarkin V,. Sheldakova J., Toporovskiy V. Stacked-actuators deformable mirror vs bimorph mirror for laser beam shaping
    LASER RESONATORS, MICRORESONATORS, AND BEAM CONTROL XXI, 2019, vol. 10904 , p. 109041K

    We present our latest research results on intensity distribution transformation from Gaussian to a flattop and doughnut. The theoretical calculations and experimental results of the efficiency of different types of deformable mirrors are given. During the experiments the wavefront was measured with Shack-Hartmann sensor and then modified with bimorph deformable mirror to reach the desired intensity distribution in the far-field. Then the bimorph mirror was substituted with the stacked-actuators deformable mirror to confirm the simulations.

  • Galaktionov I,. Kudryashov A., Nikitin A., Sheldakova J. Laser beam focusing through the dense multiple scattering suspension using bimorph mirror
    ADAPTIVE OPTICS AND WAVEFRONT CONTROL FOR BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS V, 2019, vol. 10886 , p. 1088619

    The ability to focus laser beam with wavelength 0.65 um through the multiply scattering suspension of polystyrene microspheres, diluted in distilled water, was investigated. Experimental setup, contained the Shack-Hartmann sensor for measurements of the local slopes of the Poynting vector, the CCD camera for estimation of the far-field focal spot's intensity and the bimorph mirror with 48 electrodes was built. Numerical and experimental investigations of focusing efficiency was carried out also.

  • Nikitin A.N., Galaktionov I., Sheldakova J., Kudryashov A., Baryshnikov N., Denisov D., Karasik V., Sakharov A. Absolute calibration of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for measurements of wavefronts
    PHOTONIC INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING VI, 2019, vol. 10925 , p. 109250K

    A high-quality flat wave front is usually used to calibrate the Shach-Hartmann wave-front sensors. The article discusses the possibility of calibrating sensors with spherical wave fronts. Special attention is paid to the consideration of calibration in standard laboratory conditions. The mathematical apparatus and the scheme of the experiment are considered.

  • Toporovskiy V., Kudryashov A., Samarkin V., Sheldakova J., Rukosuev A., Skvortsov A., Pshonkin D. New generation of the miniature bimorph mirrors for compensation of the wavefront distortions
    MOEMS AND MINIATURIZED SYSTEMS XVIII, 2019, vol. 10931 , p. 109310O

    As it is well-known, the laser radiation, propagated through different mediums, is affected by wavefront distortions and thus the quality of the radiation is significantly decreased. To compensate for the wavefront aberrations adaptive optics means are used. We developed miniature bimorph mirror with 37 electrodes. To manufacture this type of mirrors two technologies were used. Those are laser engraving technology for drawing electrode grid on the piezoceramic disc, and ultrasonic welding technology to connect wires to the control electrodes. Main parameters of such a deformable mirror were investigated and presented in this paper.

  • Galaktionov I,. Kudryashov A., Nikitin A.N,. Rukosuev A., Samarkin V., Sheldakova J. Focusing laser beam through pinhole using bimorph deformable mirror
    LASER RESONATORS, MICRORESONATORS, AND BEAM CONTROL XXI, 2019, vol. 10904 , p. 109041I

    The article discusses the use of bimorph adaptive mirrors to improve the focusing of laser radiation. The criterion of focusing efficiency is the fraction of the energy of the laser radiation passing through the pinhole located in the focal plane of the focusing lens.

  • Kudryashov A., Rukosuev A., Samarkin V., Sheldakova J., Toporovskiy V. Wide aperture high resolution stacked-actuator deformable mirror for high power laser beam correction
    HIGH POWER LASERS FOR FUSION RESEARCH V, 2019, vol. 10898 , p. 1089809

    Thermal effects in the active laser medium influence on the quality of the laser beam in high-power laser systems. Temperature fluctuations lead to refractive index modulation in the medium, thus the intensity of the radiation is significantly reduced. Historically, to solve this task an adaptive optics technique is used. It allows to compensate for the wavefront aberrations. Stacked-actuator deformable mirror is a traditional technology that is used in order to improve the quality of the incident wavefront. This type of wavefront correctors has one significant shortcoming - the impossibility of the replacement of broken actuators. We developed a stacked-actuator deformable mirror with aperture of 120 mm and 121 control actuators to correct for the high-power laser radiation. Actuator arrangement was hexagonal. In our design, the broken piezoactuators could be easily replaced.

  • Kalenkov S.G., Kalenkov G.S. Hyperspectral holography and volume Denisyuk holograms
    HOLOGRAPHY: ADVANCES AND MODERN TRENDS VI, 2019, vol. 11030 , p. 1103004

    Registration of two types of digital holograms is considered: digital hyperspectral holograms and Denisyuk volume holograms (holograms in colliding beams). Hyperspectral holograms are considered as an analogue of thin holograms, in which zero order and a conjugate image are suppressed. Previously proposed principles are developed for the case of thick holograms in their digital representation. It is shown that the displacement of a scanning mirror in the process of hyperspectral holograms capturing is analogous to registering of the blackening function of layers of the volume hologram. The position of the mirror corresponds to the layers in a thick hologram, where the interference pattern is recorded in layers. An analogy is drawn between the restoration of a hologram by a light beam and its processing of its digital analog.

  • Toporovskiy V., Kudryashov A., Samarkin V., Sheldakova J., Rukosuev A., Skvortsov A., Pshonkin D. Bimorph deformable mirrors for high-order aberrations simulation
    LASER BEAM SHAPING XIX, 2019, vol. 11107 , p. 111070E

    The most important part of any adaptive optical system is a deformable mirror. One of the most widely used type of such mirrors are the bimorph ones. In fact, there is no problem to manufacture a wide aperture bimorph wavefront correctors that perfectly can compensate low-order laser aberrations. But if one needs a tiny deformable mirror to correct for high order aberrations with reasonable amplitude, he usually will use stacked actuator mirror or a MEMS one. In this presentation we suggest the new design and technology of production of a small size bimorph mirrors to be used to correct for atmospheric phase fluctuations. Our mirror has the diameter of 30 mm and 37 control electrodes (mirror with 20 mm and 63 control electrodes is being developed). The resonance frequency of 13.2 kHz is due to its small diameter. At the same time, large number of electrodes allows to reproduce high order aberrations. To manufacture this device two modern technologies are used: ultrasonic welding and laser engraving technology.

  • Kudryashov A., Rukosuev A., Samarkin V., Sheldakova J., Toporovskiy V. Water-cooled stacked-actuator deformable mirror for atmospheric applications
    UNCONVENTIONAL AND INDIRECT IMAGING, IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION, AND WAVEFRONT SENSING 2019, 2019 , p. 111350A

    High-power laser systems are widely used for technological purposes or laser fusion experiments, but also to deliver the energy to some remote places here on the Earth as well as in space. Probably the only instrument to improve the phase structure of the laser beam is to use methods and elements of adaptive optics. The heart of any adaptive optical system is of course the deformable mirror. That is why the research and development of such optical elements continues for many years already. Here we propose a new stacked actuator mirror to be used to correct for not just the turbulent phase fluctuations, but also it should work with high CW power laser beams. Therefore, our mirror is a water-cooled one. Another important feature of this device is that each actuator could be easily substituted in case of failure. The mirror is 120 mm in diameter and has 121 control elements. Main characteristics of a mirror are presented in this work.

  • Galaktionov I., Kudryashov A., Nikitin A., Sheldakova J. Laser beam focusing through the scattering medium using bimorph deformable mirror and spatial light modulator
    UNCONVENTIONAL AND INDIRECT IMAGING, IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION, AND WAVEFRONT SENSING 2019, 2019, vol. 11135 , p. 111350B

    Bimorph deformable mirror with the clear aperture of 50 mm and 48 control electrodes and spatial light modulator with resolution of 1920x1080 pixels were used to increase the efficiency of focusing of partially coherent laser radiation, propagated through the 5 mm layer of the scattering suspension of 1 um polystyrene microspheres, diluted in distilled water, with the concentration values ranging from 10(5) to 10(6) mm(-3). Medium with such parameters can be considered as an equivalent to the mid-dense fog layer with the length ranging from 300-500 meters up to 5 kilometers. Shack-Hartmann sensor was used to measure the distortions of averaged wavefront of laser beam, and CCD camera was used to estimate the intensity distribution of the focal spot in the far-field. Numerical and experimental investigation of the focusing improvement showed that it is possible to increase the peak intensity of the focal spot up to 45-60 %.

  • Galaktionov I,. Kudryashov A., Nikitin A., Rukosuev A., Samarkin V., Sheldakova J. Adaptive optics for laser-beam focusing through the pinhole
    LASER BEAM SHAPING XIX, 2019, vol. 11107 , p. 111070F

    In this work, we investigate the efficiency of the use of the bimorph deformable mirror to focusing laser beam in the pinhole. Pinholes of different diameters are used as an instrument for focusing verification. Different algorithms are discussed and analyzed for the investigation of the process of the beam focusing. It is shown that tip-tilt correction is an essential condition for increasing the focusing efficiency.

  • Kharlamov V.A., Rybnov Y.S., Spivak A.A. Some Characteristics of Moscow Acoustic Noise
    IZVESTIYA ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC PHYSICS, 2019, vol. 55, No. 7, p. 785-791

    Instrumental observation data on acoustic oscillations in Moscow for 2014-2017 have been analyzed. The difference in amplitude and spectral characteristics of acoustic noise between the megalopolis and an outside area has been demonstrated. Data testifying to an increase in acoustic noise during strong atmospheric phenomena such as hurricanes and squalls are presented. Specific features of infrasound oscillations and acoustic-gravity waves have been considered separately.

  • Gavrilov B.G., Lyakhov A.N., Poklad Y.V., Ryakhovskii I.A., Zetser Y.I. Correlated Disturbances of the Upper and Lower Ionosphere from Synchronous Measurements of Parameters of GNSS Signals and VLF Radio Signals
    COSMIC RESEARCH, 2019, vol. 57, No. 1, p. 36-43

    This is a study of the spatiotemporal distribution of midlatitude disturbances of the upper and lower ionosphere in the European zone during a strong geomagnetic storm and strong X-ray flare using data of synchronous measurements of the parameters of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals and very low-frequency (VLF) radio signals. It has been shown that the contribution of electron concentration at different altitudes to the total electron content of the ionosphere can vary significantly depending on the type of heliogeophysical disturbances. A combined analysis of GNSS signals and VLF radio signals makes it possible to study the mechanisms of coupling between the upper and lower ionospheric disturbances and the dynamics of ionospheric disturbances in the horizontal and vertical directions.

  • Riabova S. A. Features of Geomagnetic Field Secular Variation at the Midlatitude Mikhnevo and Belsk Observatories
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2019, vol. 59, No. 1, p. 115-126

    The data from observation of the geomagnetic field variations at the Midlatitude Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikhnevo village, Moscow oblast, Russia (coordinates 54.959 degrees N; 37.766 degrees E) and at the INTERMAGNET international magnetic network station of the Belsk Geophysical Observatory of Geophysical Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Belsk, Poland (coordinates 51.837 degrees N, 20.792 degrees E) in 2008-2016 are analyzed. A long-term trend related to secular variation in the magnetic field of the Earth is studied by the daily-mean values. Annual variation is distinguished in the north horizontal component of the magnetic field. The reliability of the recent version of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-12) model, which was released in December 2014 to describe variations in the main magnetic field at the Mikhnevo and Belsk observatories, is estimated. The 2011 and 2014 jerks are identified.

  • Bekker S.Z., Kozlov S.I., Lyakhov A.N. Assessment of the Accuracy of Calculations Using the International Reference Ionosphere Model IRI-2016: I. Electron Densities
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2019, vol. 59, No. 1, p. 42-52

    The paper quantitatively compares the results of calculations of the electron density Ne by the International Reference Ionosphere model IRI-2016 with experimental data obtained from the DE-2 satellite. It considers 648 variants of heliogeophysical conditions. The deviation of theoretical estimates from experimental values is within the instrumental accuracy of satellite data in an average of 27% of cases. It is concluded that the IRI-2016 model, the approximation coefficients of which in functional dependences are associated with heights of the F-region, gives negative values of the efficiency coefficient of the predicted electron density in 73% of cases in the outer ionosphere at altitudes over 500 km.

  • Rybnov Yu.S., Soloviev S.P. Synchronous Variations in the Atmospheric Pressure and Electric Field during the Passage of the Solar Terminator
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2019, vol. 59, No. 2, p. 234-241

    The paper presents the field observation data on variations in the pressure and electric field intensity in the near-surface atmospheric layer during the passage of the morning solar terminator in several regions of the Russian Federation: on Kamchatka, Kola Peninsula, and in Vladimir oblast. Analysis of the data shows that the pressure and electric field intensity undergo synchronous variations during the passage of the solar terminator. An isolated series of events has a mutual correlation coefficient of variations in the pressure and electric field intensity in the period of passage of the solar terminator that exceeded 0.9 with a subsequent decrease to the background values of approximate to 0.2-0.3.

  • Nikolayshvili S.Sh., Kozlov S.I., Platov Yu.V., Repin A.Y. Evolution of a Gas-Dust Cloud in the Upper Atmosphere: Analysis of Events October 26, 2017
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2019, vol. 59, No. 4, p. 488-492

    A sequence of digital images of a gas-dust cloud of combustion products of solid fuel that formed during the separation of rocket stages is analyzed. The images were obtained in twilight conditions from a distance of similar to 1500 km. The height of the cloud center reaches similar to 900 km, and its diameter is similar to 2000 km. The obtained data make it possible to estimate the dispersed composition of the cloud and the dynamic parameters of its development. The practically constant expansion velocity of the cloud, similar to 2 km/s, indicates that it consists of rather large, dispersed particles that do not slow down in the upper atmosphere. The proposed method can be used to clarify the physical picture of the interaction of solid-fuel combustion products with the environment.

  • Kharlamov V.A., Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A. The Electric Field in the Surface Atmosphere of the Megapolis of Moscow
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2019, vol. 59, No. 4, p. 467-478

    The results of instrumental observations of the electric-field strength in the conditions of Moscow in 2014-2018 are presented and analyzed. The spectral characteristics of the electric-field variations and its daily variation are discussed. The effect of cold atmospheric fronts, hurricanes, squalls and thunderstorms, as well as technogenic phenomena (large fires), on the electric-field variation is demonstrated. It is shown that hurricanes, squalls, and thunderstorms are preceded by periods of 1 to 4 h characterized by specific electric-field variations, which can be considered a possible prognostic sign of strong atmospheric phenomena.

  • Ermak V.M., Gavrilov B.G., Poklad Y.V., Ryakhovskii I.A. Estimate of Variations in the Parameters of the Midlatitude Lower Ionosphere Caused by the Solar Flare of September 10, 2017
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2019, vol. 59, No. 5, p. 587-592

    Changes in the state of the D and E ionospheric regions lead to variations in the amplitude-phase characteristics of VLF radio signals. The existing theoretical and empirical models of the propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves qualitatively describe the relative variations in the parameters of the lower ionosphere associated with strong heliogeophysical disturbances; however, these models do not allow estimation of the absolute value and distribution of the electron concentration. We used the measurement data for the amplitude-phase characteristics of VLF radio signals with different frequencies propagating along two closely spaced paths. This made it possible not only to quantify the parameters of the D region of the ionosphere on a spatial scale of thousands of kilometers during the powerful solar flare of September 10, 2017 but also to restore the electron concentration profile before the onset of X-ray radiation.

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A. Geomagnetic Variations during the Fall of Meteorites
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2019, vol. 59, No. 5, p. 612-622

    The results of instrumental observations of variations in the Earth's magnetic field conducted at a number of observatories of the INTERMAGNET network and the Mikhnevo geophysical observatory of Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences, during the fall of meteorites have been analyzed. The Vitim (September 24, 2002), Chelyabinsk (February 15, 2013), Romania (January 7, 2015), Buryatia (October 25, 2016), Khakassia (December 6, 2016), St. Petersburg (September 11, 2017), and Lipetsk (June 21, 2018) events have been used to show the geomagnetic effect of falling cosmic bodies. The effect has a nonlocal character, occurs simultaneously, and is observed at distances up to 7000 km from the location of falling cosmic bodies. The amplitude of induced geomagnetic variations has been found to depend weakly on the distance to the event location. The resulting data can be used to verify theoretical and computational models of the geophysical processes accompanying the fall of meteorites.

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A. Geomagnetic Field Disturbances from the Fall of the Lipetsk (June 21, 2018) and Chelyabinsk (February 15, 2013) Meteorites
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2019, vol. 485, No. 1, p. 341-345

    Based on the Chelyabinsk (February 13, 2013) and Lipetsk (June 21, 2018) events, disturbances in the Earth's geomagnetic field, which were induced by the fall of these meteorites, were studied. Based on the data provided by geomagnetic observatories of the INTERMAGNET network and the mid-latitude Mikhnevo geophysical observatory (IGD RAS), it was established that the fall of meteorites through the Earth's atmosphere, in general, induces geomagnetic disturbances of up to 5 nT at distances up to 2700 km from the impact point of a cosmic body; the maximum effect is reached with a delay time ranging from 5 to 10 min, and the duration of the period of the induced geomagnetic field disturbances varies from 5 to 20 min. The estimation dependencies of the amplitude and duration of induced geomagnetic disturbances from a distance from the meteorite impact points are proposed.

  • Adushkin V.V., Nifadiev V.I., Chen B.B., Popel S.I., Kogai G.A., Dubinskii A.Yu., Weidler P.G. Variations of the Parameters of Internal Gravity Waves in the Atmosphere of Central Asia before Earthquakes
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2019, vol. 487, No. 1, p. 841-845

    Based on the data of experimental studies of wave disturbances in the Earth's atmosphere before and after the earthquakes in Uzbekistan (May 26, 2013) and Kyrgyzstan (January 8, 2007), earlier unknown changes in the parameters of internal gravity waves are revealed. These changes were manifested during the period of five days before the earthquake and in certain cases can be used for short-term prediction of the time when seismic events are to occur.

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A. The Geomagnetic Effect of Earthquakes
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2019, vol. 488, No. 1, p. 1107-1110

    Based on the results of instrumental observations carried out at a number of mid-latitude observatories of the INTERMAGNET network and at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory (Institute of Geospheres Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences), it is shown that strong earthquakes are accompanied by increased variations in the Earth's magnetic field. In this case, the short-period (period of similar to 0.5-0.8 min) and long-period (similar to 5-20 min) stages of increased geomagnetic variations are clearly distinguished. The maximum amplitudes of induced geomagnetic variations for short-period and long-period variations are 1.5-2 and 2-4 nT, respectively. Induced geomagnetic disturbances of similar morphology and almost synchronous nature are noted at observatories located at significantly different distances from the earthquake source.

  • Krasnoshchekov D.N., Ovtchinnikov V.M,. Usoltseva O.A. Shear Wave Velocity in the Top of the Earth's Inner Core
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2019, vol. 488, No. 2, p. 1186-1189

    Analysis of PKIIKP waves reflected off the inner surface of the solid core boundary and recorded close to the antipode indicates that the shear wave velocity at its top can be 10-60% below the value of 3.5 km/s envisaged by standard models of the Earth.

  • Kharlamov V.A., Spivak A.A. Manifestation of Lunar and Solar Tides in the Spectra of GPS Coordinate Data
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2019, vol. 489, No. 1, p. 1330-1332

    The results of spectral analysis of coordinates obtained by continuous data acquisition using a stationary GPS receiver at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory, Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, are presented. A detailed analysis of the digital data series recorded over a long period of time (observations have been carried out starting from June 2014) shows that the spectrum of coordinate data variations incorporates a considerable amount of quasi-harmonic components, including fluctuations with periods similar to those of waves of tides.

  • Adushkin V.V., Spivak A.A. Problems Related to the Interaction of Geospheres and Physical Fields in Near-Surface Geophysics
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2019, vol. 55, No. 1, p. 1-11

    The key prospective research directions and tasks within the new, currently actively developing scientific direction "Near-surface geophysics" are formulated and discussed. A combined approach is suggested for studying the interactions between the geospheres at the Earth's crust-atmosphere boundary-the region of the most intense mass- and energy exchange between the internal and external geospheres-and for exploring the interactions and transformations of the geophysical fields in the near-surface zone of the Earth, including its biosphere. A number of new results yielded by studying the processes of the interaction between the geospheres and physical fields of the Earth are presented. The importance of establishing the geophysical conditions of the human environment and the characteristics of manmade activity is highlighted.

  • Gorbunova E.M., Ivanchenko G.N., Konstantinovskaya N.L., Nesterkina M.A., Sanina I.A., Gabsatarova I.P. Seismotectonic Setting of the Earthquake of August 7, 2016 and its Aftershocks
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2019, vol. 55, No. 2, p. 327-336

    On August 7, 2016, an earthquake with magnitude 4.8 occurred in the vicinity of the city of Mariupol close to the southern boundary of the East European Platform (EEP). The earthquake was accompanied by aftershocks with magnitudes ranging from 2.2 to 3.9 that lasted for five days. This region experiences external influence from the neotectonically active Alpine zone, which is expressed in intraplate deformations, horizontal and vertical movements of the Earth's surface, and seismicity. The sources of the earthquake and its aftershocks are located within the block bounded by the neotectonically active Maloyanisol, Kalmius, and Primorsky faults. In the axial part of the block, a seismogenic structure is traced by the submeridional Kalchik lineament zone identified by the combined analysis of geological and geophysical data and visual interpretation of the satellite image. This neotectonically active zone accommodates the epicenters of the main event and most of the aftershocks.

  • Adushkin V.V., Kharlamov V.A., Rybnov Y.S., Spivak A.A. Relationship between the Parameters of Infrasound Waves and the Energy of the Source
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2019, vol. 55, No. 6, p. 897-906

    A new phenomenological model describing the propagation of acoustic disturbances in the stratospheric waveguide is proposed based on instrumental observations of infrasound signals from high-power explosive sources in the atmosphere. A generalized relationship between the energy of the acoustic source in the atmosphere and the characteristic frequency in the spectrum of the acoustic signal is obtained. The developed model is verified against the description of natural and manmade acoustic sources with the known energy. It is shown that the proposed model agrees with the observations and the data obtained in the other works.

  • Korsunskaja J.A. HEURISTIC MODEL OF SOLAR X-RAY SPECTRUM ACCORDING TO SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOPHYSICAL APPLICATIONS
    SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS, 2019, vol. 5, No. 3, p. 75-86

    This paper presents a model and a computational algorithm for recovering the X-ray component of the solar spectrum based on GOES XL (0.1-0.8 nm), XS (0.05-0.4 nm or 0.05-0.3 nm), and SDO QD (0.1-7 nm) data. The model relies on the emission spectrum of optically thin plasmas in the Mewe approximation, which is the temperature spectrum. An assumption is made about the possibility of representing the total spectrum as a superposition of Mewe spectra situated in the absorbing solar atmosphere to an optical depth equal to 1 for the energy corresponding to its temperature parameter. Thus, this model is a version of the multi-temperature approximation. Spectrum parameters are determined from support functions, approximation expressions for which are given in Appendix.

  • Toporovskiy V., Kudryashov A., Samarkin V., Sheldakova J., Rukosuev A., Skvortsov A., Pshonkin D. Bimorph deformable mirror with a high density of electrodes to correct for atmospheric distortions
    APPLIED OPTICS, 2019, vol. 58, No. 22, p. 6019-6026

    This paper presents a new development of small-diameter, high-spatial-resolution, semipassive bimorph deformable mirrors to be used in different imaging systems. To manufacture the small control elements, laser engraving technology is used. An ultrasonic welding technique to connect the wires to the electrodes (actuators) is applied for this kind of mirror. The initial flatness of the mirror surface equals 0.33 mu m (P-V) due to the use of substrate polishing technology after gluing the glass substrate to a piezo disk. We present the main parameters of these wavefront correctors, such as the response functions of different electrodes, temporal behavior, and the ability to compensate for high-order aberrations.

  • Kalenkov S.G., Kalenkov G.S., Shtanko A.E. Self-reference hyperspectral holographic microscopy
    JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION, 2019, vol. 36, No. 2, p. A34-A38

    Self-reference hyperspectral holographic microscopy with an extended, spatially incoherent, polychromatic source is suggested and experimentally verified. The reference field is the zero-order Fourier component of the object filtered out by a ring-shaped mask placed in the Fourier plane of the optical system. A set of spectrally resolved complex amplitudes of the object is obtained on the basis of a standard microscope equipped with a Michelson interferometer. Experiments on registration of hyperspectral holograms confirming the validity of the proposed theoretical model are carried out.

  • Koсharyan G.G., Morozova K.G., Ostapchuk A.A. Acoustic Emission in a Layer of Geomaterial under Deformation by Shear
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2019, vol. 55, No. 3, p. 358-363

    The new method is proposed for interpreting data of acoustic emission during initiation and growth of dynamic breakaways. The method is based on the analysis of wave form of the emitted acoustic pulses. Clustering of the pulses by the wave form criterion shows that in the localization zone of strains different-scale processes described with various scaling relations take place. All classes of acoustic pulses obey the power-series amplitude-frequency distribution. The sharp-arrival acoustic pulses posses unaltered scaling relations in the period of nucleation and growth of dynamic breakaways whereas the smooth-arrival pulses demonstrate the nonlinear change in the scaling relations. At the final stage of the dynamic breakaway formation, the proportion and amplitude of acoustic pulses with smooth arrival increase.

  • Kocharyan G.G., Batuhtin I.V., Budkov A.M., Ivanchenko G.N., Kishkina S.B., Pavlov D.V. On the Initiation of Dynamic Slips on Faults by Man-Made Impacts
    IZVESTIYA ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC PHYSICS, 2019, vol. 55, No. 10, p. 1559-1571

    The subject of research is dynamic slips on large faults initiated by man-made impacts. In addition to recognized types of man-made impacts such as fluid injection or seismic vibrations, the possible trigger effect of rock extraction and displacement during mining operations is considered. It is shown that dynamic sliding can be initiated only on faults in which three geomechanical conditions for the occurrence of instability are fulfilled: closeness of the value of Coulomb stresses in the fault plane to the local ultimate tensile strength; the condition of weakening of frictional contact with an increasing sliding velocity and relative movement of fault sides; and the implementation of a certain ratio between the stiffness of the enclosing massif and the rate of reduction of resistance to friction. Features of formation of a dynamic slip on a fault are considered in the series of laboratory and numerical experiments. It is shown that the movement always begins in the segment with the property of velocity weakening, regardless of the location of such a segment relative to the load application. According to the calculations, the excavation of rock in a large mining quarry leads to a change of about 1 MPa in the Coulomb stresses in the fault plane in areas that significantly exceed the size of the nucleation zone of earthquakes with M <= 6. This may turn out to be sufficient to initiate seismogenic slips on stressed faults.

  • Adushkin V.V.,Goev A.G.,Kosarev G.L.,Sanina I.A. Estimation of seismic azimuthal anisotropy parameters of the upper mantle of the central part of the east-european craton according to the data of the "Obninsk" and "Mikhnevo" seismic stations
    Geophysical Research, 2019, vol. 20, No. 3, p. 23-33

    The results of determining the parameters of seismic anisotropy of the upper mantle of the central part of the East-European craton are given. According to the tectonic concepts actively developing in recent decades, the East-European craton consists of megablocks (microplates) of different age: there are three main megablocks - Fennoscandia, Volga-Uralia and Sarmatia. The area of their triple junction is the subject of this article. The SKS/SKKS anisotropy method was applied. Its essence is to use SKS phases in order to obtain delay times for the arrival of two quasi-shear waves that are formed during the trace of a shear wave through an anisotropic medium and gets through it with different velocities. The result is to simulate the azimuth of the maximum velocity axis along which "fast" quasi-shear wave trace and to get the delay time between "fast" and "slow" waves. The technique does not allow to obtain accurate estimates of the depth of the anisotropic layer, however, taking into account the long periods of the SKS wave and the pronounced anisotropic properties of olivine, as the main material composing the upper mantle, it is assumed that these effects are related to the mantle processes. Authors used the data from "Obninsk" (OBN) and "Mikhnevo" (MHV) stations that are located in the zone of the triple junction of blocks. For Obninsk station - 1266 events were used, for Mikhnevo station - 472. For each station, we obtained estimates of the azimuth of the maximum speed axis and the delay time of arrival of quasi-shear waves. As a result of the study, the mantle anisotropy of the region is assessed as weak, which is an expected result for tectonically stable platform regions (delay time 0.4 s for the OBN station and 0.2 s for the MHV station). The direction of the maximum speed axis is strictly sub-latitude (90° for the OBN and 100° for MHV station), which is in accordance with the known the East-European lithospheric plate motion. For the OBN station, two groups of events were identified, with significantly different results, structured by azimuth. For events mainly with western azimuths of arrival of seismic waves, the solution is 90° and 0.4 s, while processing events from the eastern direction of arrival, along with a coordinated solution, a second pronounced local extremum is detected, corresponding to angles and delay time about 0.5-1.0 s. According to the results of MHV data processing, a second local extremum was also found, corresponding to similar angles of about 160°, however, with a shorter delay time (about 0.1-0.2 s). It can be assumed that the presence of two extrema is associated with the anisotropic parameters of two different megablocks, near the junction boundary of which are located the OBN and MHV stations.

  • Zenchenko E.V., Trimonova M.A., Turuntaev S.B. Laboratory modeling of hydraulic fracturing and related processes
    Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo - Oil Industry, 2019 , No. 10, p. 68-71

    The article describes the results of laboratory experiments conducted on a unique setup, which allows to model not only the process of hydraulic fracturing, but also to vary the external conditions. The advantages of the setup include the ability to model such tasks: Reorientation of a hydraulic fracture due to the stress state changes caused by the development of the field; the formation of unstable fractures in the injection wells; verification of hydraulic fracturing simulators used in oil producing companies. The setup allows to study large samples (0.43 m in diameter, 0.07 m in height). It is possible to place in the sample not only a model well with fracturing, but also adjacent wells. Thus, we can model part of the development system and its effect on hydraulic fracture propagation. Also, a non-uniform three-dimensional stress-strain state which largely determines the geometry of the fracture can be created with the setup. The experiments were aimed at the study of the problems described above. It was found that the pore pressure distribution created by the development of neighboring wells can actually influence the fracture trajectory. Also, the influence of existing fractures on the propagation of a new fracture was established. In addition, in the experiment it was possible to obtain a refracture. The presented experimental results allow a better understanding of the formation of real hydraulic fracturing, which should be taken into account in the numerical simulation. © 2019, Neftyanoe Khozyaistvo. All rights reserved.

  • Riabova S.A. Geomagnetic effect of the strong 2011 Tohoku earthquake
    Mining Informational and Analytical Bulletin, 2019 , No. 4, p. 137-151

    Anomalies of magnetic field of the Earth during high-magnitude earthquake have many times been addressed in the scientific literature. The earlier research of magnetic anomalies mostly used data of magnetic recording at points nearby epicenters of earthquakes. Recently, researchers lay emphasis on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake of moment magnitude Mw 9.0 occurred on the east coast of Honshu (Japan, epicenter at 38.32 degrees North latitude and 142.37 degrees East longitude). This study focuses on geomagnetic perturbations far away from the epicenter of the Great East-Japan Earthquake and uses observatory data from international network Intermagnet and Geophysical Observatory Mikhnevo. Processing and analysis of the instrumental observation data shows that ini tiation of earthquakes is accompanied by variations in the magnetic field. These anomalies are distinct and recorded at great distances from the epicenter. Records of anomalous magnetic signals can be used in prediction algorithms of earthquakes and rock bursts. On the other hand, perturbations during storms confine practical importance of predictive monitoring as magnetospheric and ionospheric disturbances considerably exceed lithospheric disturbances.

  • Tyupin V.N., Anisimov V.N. Methods of stability retention of exposed rock surfaces in fractured rock mass under large-scale blasting
    Mining Informational and Analytical Bulletin, 2019 , No. 4, p. 53-62

    Formulas of safe ranges and relative elastic strains during large-scale blasting in surface or underground mines are presented. A safe range means stability of exposed rock surface in surface or underground mines under seismic effect of large-scale blasts. Based on the relative strain formula, controlled and uncontrolled parameters of drilling and blasting as well as physicotechnical properties of rocks are analyzed. The influence of controlled blast parameters on relative strains of rocks is assessed. Some methods of depression of large-scale blast action on the stability of exposed rock surfaces are described. The research findings can be used in industrial testing, for retention of exposed rock surfaces (benches and pit walls, unsupported side walls of rooms and pillars, etc.) during large-scale blasting in surface and underground mines. In the Oskol ore region of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, an underground multipurpose test ground is arranged for studying seismic effect of large-scale blasts in complex-structure ferruginous quartzite bodies in Lebedinsky and Stoilensky open pit mines and in Gibkin Mine.

  • Oparin V.N., Adushkin V.V., Vostrikov V.I., Yushkin V.F., Kiryaeva T.A. Experimental and theoretical framework of nonlinear tomography. Part III: Promising systems to control deformation and wave processes in surface and underground mining
    Mining Informational and Analytical Bulletin, 2019 , No. 12, p. 5-29

    To expand the range of instrumentation for nonlinear geotomography using pendulum waves, recording of complex deformation and wave processes, as well as analysis of the related seismic emission processes induced by surface and underground mining, earthquakes and powerful explosions, this article describes the modern and promising measuring equipment designed by the Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Specifications of the equipment provide recording of the dynamic and kinematic characteristics of pendulum waves in high-stress geomedia with hierarchical block structure. The formalized connection between such structure and seismic emission processes was described earlier (Part II of the article). This part of the article presents two basic measuring and computing systems for monitoring absolute displacements and strains in real geomedia in a dynamic mode in underground and surface mines under extreme climate of Siberia. Efficiency of the measurement systems in recording of low-velocity (less than 100 m/s) pendulum waves is illustrated by the field records of blasting at copper–nickel mines in the Norilsk Region (instrumentation system MOED-p) and in open pit mines at the kimberlite pipes in Yakutia (multi-functional deformation–wave measuring and computing system Karier). The comparative analysis of these records and the wave packets of higher gas-dynamic activity induced in Kuzbass mines by earthquakes according to the readings of automated gas control systems shows the deterministic connection of earthquakes and low-velocity pendulum waves (less than 5 m/s).

  • Nesterkina M.A., Kulikov, VI (Kulikov V.I., Konstantinovskaya N.L., Sanina I.A., Riznichenko O.Y. Assessment of the Seismic Impact of Industrial Explosions in the Central Part of the East European Platform
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2019, vol. 55, No. 2, p. 148-159

    The attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and shear waves propagating in the Earth's upper crust below the central region of the East European Platform have been determined using seismic observations along a profile from the Novogurovskii limestone quarry to the Mikhnevo small-aperture seismic array. Assuming that dissipative properties of the Earth's crust are invariable, we drew a contour map characterizing the propagation of seismic energy generated by open pit mine blasting in the central part of the East European Platform; the map reflects both historical and recent earthquakes as well. The distribution of seismic impacts of industrial explosions is compared with the distribution of zones of tectonic dislocations revealed by lineament analysis. The map also contains estimates of the intensity of open pit blasting in 2013-2017.

  • Varypaev A.V., Sanina I.A., Chulkov A.B., Kushnir A.F. Application of Robust Phase Algorithms for Seismic Emission Detection in the Area of Blasting Operations in Mines
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2019, vol. 55, No. 2, p. 136-147

    In this paper, we developed algorithms for multichannel processing of seismic array records that allow detecting signals of weak seismic events observed against the background of natural seismic noise. The algorithm for detecting signals of weak seismic events is based on the coherence assessment of longitudinal waves (P-waves) recorded by a small aperture array. The advantage of this algorithm over the known single-channel short/long term averaging (STA/LTA) detector is the ability to detect time intervals of P-waves at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) less than unity. Based on the time intervals of the array records with the registered coherence measure values that exceed a certain threshold, the apparent slowness vector is estimated by using the phase bimforming algorithm that is robust to noise (Zhang et al., 2008; Kushnir and Varypaev, 2017). The developed algorithms of multichannel processing were tested using real seismic records of a small aperture array installed in the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly area near the mine workings for iron ore extraction. Signals of both strong (underground industrial explosions) and weak seismic events were detected for 20 h of seismic recording. In some cases, seismic events were shown to have a complex source mechanism. Using the Capon filter (Capon, 1969), for weak seismic events, P-waves with a duration not exceeding 0.2 s and a temporal shape similar to the known function of a Ricker pulse (Bording, 1996) are found to have resemblance.

  • Kitov I.O., Turuntaev S.B., Konovalov A.V., Stepnov A.A., Pupatenko V.V. Use of Waveform Cross Correlation to Reconstruct the Aftershock Sequence of the August 14, 2016, Sakhalin Earthquake
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2019, vol. 55, No. 5, p. 544-558

    The waveform cross correlation technique is used to detect signals from aftershocks of the ML = 6.1, August 14, 2016, Sakhalin earthquake using regional seismic network data. Regular P- and S-wave phase arrivals are associated with seismic sources; the resulting cross correlation bulletin is compared with a standard seismic bulletin for the same aftershock sequence. An advantage of the cross correlation bulletin is that it has more detected seismic events tied to three or more stations and a lower catalog completeness threshold; even the epicenters of the weakest aftershocks are located with greater accuracy. The exact aftershock locations tend to cluster along a narrow zone related to the Central Sakhalin Fault.

  • Anisimov V.N.,Logachev V.I.,Logachev I.I. Destruction of Ferruginous Quartzite in Rock Mass by High-Gradient Magnetic Fields
    Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute, 2019, vol. 46, No. 11, p. 364-370

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the applicability of strong pulsed magnetic fields to destruct ferruginous quartzite are presented. A “magnetokinetic” model of ferruginous quartzite destruction, based on the interaction of magnetite grains with quartz matrix at the passage of a high-gradient electromagnetic pulse through rock, is proposed. It is shown that the high-gradient pulsed magnetic field can be used to destruct quartz-containing rocks in a massif during both drilling and blasting and when solving geoenvironmental problems in mining crystalline rocks, complex-structure massifs of ferruginous quartzites by the example of deposits of the Kursk magnetic anomaly (KMA) and others.

  • Nepeina K., An V. The Refined USSR Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Database for Borovoye Geophysical Observatory
    DATA, 2019, vol. 4, No. 2, p. 56

    This paper shows the results of the refined locations for underground Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs). Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) were made for industrial applications in the Soviet Union. This study is based on a comparison of PNEs' parameters. These explosions were recorded by seismographic stations in Kazakhstan from 1966 to 1988. The monitoring/verification community generally utilizes PNE locations from Sultanov et al. (1999). In reality, there are errors and some PNEs are poorly located. Our locations were determined using an integrated approach encompassing published open literature sources and archive seismogram analysis from Borovoye Geophysical Observatory. Treated PNEs seismograms have been available to researchers since 2001. They became available after the cooperation between Russian and U.S. organizations. The first one was the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IDG RAS), the organization that operated the Observatory in the Soviet era. The second one was the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC since 1992). The third one, from the U.S. side, was the LamontDoherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO). We present two digital seismograms of old-style seismograms from a digitized archive in ASCII format. We provide travel times for P-waves, some seismograms, and additional source parameters. Dataset License: license CC BY-NC.

  • Goev A., Gorbunova E., Ivanchenko G., Kosarev G., Sanina I. Features of the structure of collision zones of the central part of the east european craton
    International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, 2019, vol. 19, No. 1, p. 187-194

    In the given work the new velocity model of the central part of the East European craton is presented. To achieve this goal six broadband seismic stations were installed along the profile about 500 km long. To recall the velocity structure, the receiver function technique has been used. For the inversion we used Levenberg - Marquardt algorithm for both P-to-S and S-to-P converted waves along with the travel times discrepancy of the transition zone 410-660 km. Preliminary processing of the velocity sections made it possible to investigate the inner velocity structure along a sublatitudinal profile from the marginal zone of the Sarmatia microcontinent through the multidirectional collision zones, to the marginal zone of the Volga-Uralia microcontinent. The structure of the collision zones, which was investigated at the “Aleksandrovka”, “Mikhnevo”, “Obninsk” and “Voskresensk” observation points, may be associated with the Proterozoic tectonic processing and upward movements of the mantle plumes. The marginal zone of the microcontinent Volga-Uralia belong to the region of the partially reworked Archean crust and were studied at the observation point “Shatura”. The deep structure of the Tokmovskiy ovoid of the Volga-Uralia microcontinent was investigated in the “Monakovo” registration point. In the velocity sections, the complex transition crust-upper mantle zone is clearly distinguished, which is a combination of the boundaries of Moho, corresponding to the various tectono-magmatic stages of the region. Revealed increased (relative to the reference model IASP91) velocities in the upper mantle are traced at all stations. A layer of lower velocities is observed in the depth range of 100–150 km.

  • Riabova S., Spivak A. Geomagnetic anomalies associated with earthquakes
    International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, 2019, vol. 19, No. 1, p. 821-828

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the geomagnetic anomalies possibly linked with seismic activity. We analyzed the geomagnetic data recorded at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory (54.959ºN, 37.766ºE) and INTERMAGNET Magnetic Observatories in order to discover anomalous geomagnetic variations associated with the high-magnitude earthquakes. The magnetic field variations were analyzed during seismic events that occurred in different regions with a magnitude greater than ~ 5. It was established that at the final stage of the preparation of the focus and with the main shock, magnetic field perturbations are recorded. At the same time, geomagnetic variations are manifested in two forms: Short-period, occurring within 5–15 min after the main shock and long-period, the beginning of which is recorded either immediately after the short-period, or 5 0 min before the main shock. For shallow focus earthquakes we observed both short-period (period of ~ 0.5 − 0.8 min) and long-period (period of ~ 5–20 min) geomagnetic disturbances. The maximum geomagnetic anomaly amplitude is 1.5 – 2 nT for short-period variations and 2 4 nT for long-period variations. For deep focus earthquakes we observed only long-period geomagnetic disturbances. Observations of the local variations in the geomagnetic field have afforded us some evidence that the observed geomagnetic anomalies are linked with the high-magnitude seismic events.

  • Gorbunova E., Besedina A. Study of the hydrogeological responses from the far earthquakes
    International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, 2019, vol. 19, No. 2, p. 507-514

    Study of the hydrogeological response to remote earthquakes is a separate scientific direction at the boundary of hydrogeology and geophysics. It’s necessary for understanding hydrogeomechanical processes occurring in fluid-saturated reservoirs. Spectral analysis is a convenient tool for estimation the relation between underground water level variations and ground displacement during passage of seismic waves from remote earthquakes. Water level variations can be classified as step-like, co-seismic and post-seismic changes. Different types of water level response manifest themselves in different ways in the high-and low-frequency ranges. This paper reviews water level responses to remote earthquakes (epicentral distances of more than 1800 km), that were recorded at Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory under the platform conditions. Hydrogeological responses in the high-frequency range to seismic impact were recorded predominantly. Water level response in the low-frequency range was detected for a few events. Of greatest interest are hydrogeological responses to Wenchuan 05.05.2008 M8.0, Tohoku 11.03.2011 M9.1, Chile 02.27.2010 M8.8, and 09.16.2015 M8.3 earthquakes, which do not fit into the general pattern. For them lower values of the peak ground velocity in the low-frequency range correspond to higher values of the water level amplitudes. Such a discrepancy between the intensity of the water level changes and the ground velocity in the low-frequency range can be used for typifying of hydrogeological responses and may indicate a local change in the microstructure of the fluid-saturated reservoir.

  • Riabova S. Application of the wavelet transform modulus maxima method to analyze the multifractal behavior of geomagnetic variations
    International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, 2019, vol. 19, No. 2, p. 769-775

    The objective of this research is to analyze the multifractal behavior of geomagnetic field corresponding to the well-known 27-day variation (solar rotation period) and its harmonics and the 1-day (solar diurnal) periodicities. We discuss the multifractal behavior of geomagnetic variations recorded at the middle latitude stations, using wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM). The WTMM is capable of partitioning the time and scale domain of a signal into fractal dimension regions, and the method is sometimes referred to as a "mathematical microscope" due to its ability to inspect the multi-scale dimensional characteristics of a signal and possibly inform about the sources of these characteristics. WTMM provides an understanding of the multifractal scaling behavior of a signal using the multifractal singularity spectra and the generalized Hurst exponents as diagnostic tools. In this research it is established that the 1-day period exhibits monofractal behavior regardless of the solar activity. Results indicate that except for the 1-day period, the geomagnetic variations at all other periods shows a higher degree of multifractality during solar maximum compared to solar minimum

  • Kocharyan G.G., Kishkina S.B., Budkov A.M., Ivanchenko G.N. On the genesis of the 2013 Bachat earthquake
    Geodynamics and Tectonophysics, 2019, vol. 10, No. 3, p. 741-759

    The ML 6.1 earthquake that occurred on June 18, 2013 in Kuzbass is the strongest seismic event related to mining operations in this region. Opinions about its genesis differ. On the one hand, its hypocenter and most aftershocks occurred directly underneath the Bachat open-pit mine, which suggests that this seismic event was due to anthropogenic impacts. On the other hand, the earthquake focus was located at a depth of several kilometers, which, according to some authors, argues against the anthropogenic factor – the technogenic change in the parameters of the stress field was insignificant against the lithostatic pressure and, especially, the rock strength (e.g. [Lovchikov, 2016]). Our study aims to discover and assess an impact of the mining operations in the near-surface areas of the crust, investigate whether the Bachat earthquake was caused by the mining operations, and clarify which processes in particular were the most probable triggers of dynamic movement in the Bachat earthquake source. The probable geometrical parameters of the fault plane were estimated from the structural and tectonic conditions of the study area and the published locations of the aftershocks [Emanov et al., 2017]. It is established that seimic events of magnitudes similar to that of the Bachat earthquake cannot be caused by the overall anthropogenic load on the area, and it is unlikely that such a strong earthquake may occur due to the direct effects of seismic vibrations resulting from mass explosions during the mining operations. Our analytical models and numerical simulations, as well as the analysis of seismological observation data show that the most probable factor that initiated dynamic movements in the earthquake source was the extraction of the huge rock volume and its transportation from the Bachat open-pit mine. It should be noted that the size of the zone, wherein the geomechanical initiation criteria are met, is considerably larger than the critical size of a nucleation zone for a M 6 earthquake. However, open-pit mining operations can hardly affect the localization of strong earthquake sources. Mining operations can only trigger a seismic event that has been already prepared by the natural evolution of the crust.

  • Jenniskens P., Popova O.P., Glazachev D.O., Podobnaya E.D., Kartashova A.P. Tunguska eyewitness accounts, injuries, and casualties
    ICARUS, 2019, vol. 327 , p. 4-18

    The airburst events at Chelyabinsk and Tunguska in Russia are the best-documented asteroid impacts of recent times. Models that assess the potential danger from such events rely on an accurate picture of their aftermath. Here, we re-examine the most critical eyewitness accounts of the Tunguska airburst, namely those that describe injuries and casualties, and those that paint a picture of what events were responsible. Not all relevant information has survived in the written record and there are contradictions that create some ambiguity. We find that inside and near the tree-fall area were at least 30 people. Many lost consciousness and at least 3 passed away (immediately or later) as a direct consequence of the Tunguska event. The airburst created a butterfly-shaped pattern of glass damage extending 4–5 times wider than that seen at Chelyabinsk. At these larger distances, any injuries from falls, shattering glass cuts, or from UV radiation exposure were not reported.

  • Svetsov V., Shuvalov V. Thermal radiation from impact plumes
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2019, vol. 54, No. 1, p. 126-141

    Plumes produced by the impacts of asteroids and comets consist of rock vapor and heated air. They emit visible light, ultraviolet, and infrared radiation, which can greatly affect the environment. We have carried out numerical simulations of the impacts of stony and cometary bodies with a diameter of 0.3, 1, and 3 km, which enter the atmosphere at various angles, using a hydrodynamic model supplemented by radiation transfer. We assumed that the cosmic object has no strength, and deforms, fragments, and vaporizes in the atmosphere. After the impact on the ground, the formation of craters and plumes was simulated, taking the internal friction of destroyed rocks and the trail formed in the atmosphere into account. The equation of radiative transfer, added to the equations of gas dynamics, was used in the approximation of radiative heat conduction or, if the Rosseland optical depth of a radiating volume of gas and vapor was less than unity, in the volume-emission approximation. We used temperature and density distributions obtained in these simulations to calculate radiation fluxes on the Earth's surface by integrating the equation of radiative transfer along rays passing through a luminous region. We used tables of the equation of state of dunite and quartz (for stony impactors and a target) and air, as well as tables of absorption coefficients of air, vapor of ordinary chondrite, and vapor of cometary material. We have calculated the radiation impulse on the ground and the impact radiation efficiency (a ratio of thermal radiation energy incident on the ground to the kinetic energy of a body), which ranges from ~0.5% to ~9%, depending on the impactor size and the angle of entry into the atmosphere. Direct thermal radiation from fireballs and impact plumes, poses a great danger to people, animals, plants, and economic objects. After the impacts of asteroids at a speed of 20 km s−1 at an angle of 45°, a fire can occur at a distance of 250 km if the asteroid has a diameter of 0.3 km, and at a distance of 2000 km if the diameter is 3 km.

  • Artemieva N., Shuvalov V. Atmospheric shock waves after impacts of cosmic bodies up to 1000 m in diameter
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2019, vol. 54, No. 3, p. 592-608

    The results of numerical modeling of meteoroids' interaction with Earth's atmosphere are presented. We model the entry in two dimensions and then interpolate the results into a 3-D model to calculate interaction of shock waves with the surface. Maximum shock pressures, wind speeds, and areas subjected to substantial overpressure are calculated for oblique impacts of asteroids and comets. We show that vertical impacts produce a smaller damage zone on the surface than oblique ones. Damage caused by shock waves covers an order of magnitude larger area than any other hazardous effects. The function of energy release in the atmosphere, which is traditionally used in meteoritics, has a limited application if cosmic bodies are larger than tens of meters in diameter: at each time moment energy is smoothed along a substantial length of the trajectory; both emitted radiation (routinely used for calibration of semi-analytical models) and shock wave amplitude are complex functions of temperature–density distributions in atmosphere.

  • Adushkin V.V., Ivanchenko G.N., Sanina I.A., Gorbunova E.M., Gabsatarova I.P., Konstantinovskaya N.L., Nesterkina, M.A. Seismogenic Ancient Structures of the Center and North of the East European Platform
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2019, vol. 489, No. 2, p. 1432-1435

    The location of earthquake epicenters in the central and northern parts of the East European Platform in 2009-2016 has been analyzed. The earthquake epicenters have been recorded by seismic stations of the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences and using the Mikhnevo Small-Aperture Array of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences. The results obtained are indirectly indicative of the seismic activity of the regional Riphean structures complicating the foundation surface and of their possible activation at present. The available data on the historical earthquakes also confirm their confinement to paleorifts. It seems appropriate to take into account the position of ancient aulacogens in assessing the seismic hazard of the East European Platform.

  • Kocharyan G.G., Budkov A.M., Batukhtin I.V., Ivanchenko G.N., Pavlov D.V., Kishkina S. On the Initiation of Dynamic Slips on Faults by Man-Made Impacts
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2019, vol. 55, No. 10, p. 1559-1571

    The subject of research is dynamic slips on large faults initiated by man-made impacts. In addition to recognized types of man-made impacts such as fluid injection or seismic vibrations, the possible trigger effect of rock extraction and displacement during mining operations is considered. It is shown that dynamic sliding can be initiated only on faults in which three geomechanical conditions for the occurrence of instability are fulfilled: closeness of the value of Coulomb stresses in the fault plane to the local ultimate tensile strength; the condition of weakening of frictional contact with an increasing sliding velocity and relative movement of fault sides; and the implementation of a certain ratio between the stiffness of the enclosing massif and the rate of reduction of resistance to friction. Features of formation of a dynamic slip on a fault are considered in the series of laboratory and numerical experiments. It is shown that the movement always begins in the segment with the property of velocity weakening, regardless of the location of such a segment relative to the load application. According to the calculations, the excavation of rock in a large mining quarry leads to a change of about 1 MPa in the Coulomb stresses in the fault plane in areas that significantly exceed the size of the nucleation zone of earthquakes with M <= 6. This may turn out to be sufficient to initiate seismogenic slips on stressed faults.

  • Pavlov D.V., Kocharyan G.G., Kulikov V.I. Impact of Massive Blasts on Stability of Tectonic Faults
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2019, vol. 55, No. 6, p. 905-913

    The measurement data on seismic load parameters induced by massive blasting carried out in surface and underground mines are presented. The maximum amplitude of seismic vibrations at the probable depth of potential sources of high-magnitude stimulated-tectonic earthquakes is calculated. These estimates and their comparison with the precision deformography observations show that residual displacements along faults at seismic depths under the impact of massive blasts in surface mines are not more than dens-hundreds microns. The seismic data demonstrate insufficiency of these impacts for initiation of high-magnitude earthquakes

  • Kocharyan G.G., Ostapchuk A.A., Morozova K.G. Acoustic Emission in a Layer of Geomaterial under Deformation by Shear
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2019, vol. 55, No. 3, p. 358-363

    The new method is proposed for interpreting data of acoustic emission during initiation and growth of dynamic breakaways. The method is based on the analysis of wave form of the emitted acoustic pulses. Clustering of the pulses by the wave form criterion shows that in the localization zone of strains different-scale processes described with various scaling relations take place. All classes of acoustic pulses obey the power-series amplitude-frequency distribution. The sharp-arrival acoustic pulses posses unaltered scaling relations in the period of nucleation and growth of dynamic breakaways whereas the smooth-arrival pulses demonstrate the nonlinear change in the scaling relations. At the final stage of the dynamic breakaway formation, the proportion and amplitude of acoustic pulses with smooth arrival increase.

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

  • ТРИМОНОВА М.А., ФАСХЕЕВ И.О. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ НЕУПРУГИХ СВОЙСТВ ПОРОД ПРИ ГИДРОРАЗРЫВЕ
    МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ МЕЖДИСЦИПЛИНАРНЫЙ СИМПОЗИУМ "ИЕРАРХИЧЕСКИЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ: РАЗРАБОТКА И ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ ДЛЯ НОВЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ И НАДЕЖНЫХ КОНСТРУКЦИЙ", 2019 , p. 59

  • БАКЕЕВ Р.А., СТЕФАНОВ Ю.П., КОЧАРЯН Г.Г. ЭТАПЫ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ РАЗЛОМНОЙ ЗОНЫ ПРИ СДВИГЕ ПО ПРОСТИРАНИЮ. КИНЕМАТИКА БЛОЧНОЙ СТРУКТУРЫ
    МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ МЕЖДИСЦИПЛИНАРНЫЙ СИМПОЗИУМ "ИЕРАРХИЧЕСКИЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ: РАЗРАБОТКА И ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ ДЛЯ НОВЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ И НАДЕЖНЫХ КОНСТРУКЦИЙ", 2019 , p. 652

  • KOCHARYAN G.G., OSTAPCHUK A.A., PAVLOV D.V. DIFFERENT FAULT SLIP MODES - GOVERNING, EVOLUTION AND TRANSFORMATION
    МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ МЕЖДИСЦИПЛИНАРНЫЙ СИМПОЗИУМ "ИЕРАРХИЧЕСКИЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ: РАЗРАБОТКА И ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ ДЛЯ НОВЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ И НАДЕЖНЫХ КОНСТРУКЦИЙ", 2019 , p. 16-17

  • КУДРЯШОВ А.В., РУКОСУЕВ А.Л. АДАПТИВНАЯ ОПТИКА ДЛЯ ЗАДАЧ УНИЧТОЖЕНИЯ КОСМИЧЕСКОГО МУСОРА
    КОСМИЧЕСКИЙ МУСОР: ФУНДАМЕНТАЛЬНЫЕ И ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЕ АСПЕКТЫ УГРОЗЫ, 2019 , p. 191-198

    Рассматривается применение методов и средств адаптивной оптики в задаче уничтожения космического мусора излучением мощного лазера наземного базирования. Атмосферная турбулентность и аэрозольные частицы, присутствующие в атмосфере Земли, ухудшают качество излучения, достигающего космического мусора. Адаптивная оптическая система, интегрированная с мощным лазером, вносит предискажения в волновой фронт лазера, способствуя концентрации большей мощности на фрагментах космического мусора. В данной статье акцент делается на обеспечение частотных характеристик адаптивной оптической системы.

  • АДУШКИН В.В., АКСЕНОВ О.Ю., ВЕНИАМИНОВ С.С., КОЗЛОВ С.И., ДЕДУС Ф.Ф. О ПОПУЛЯЦИИ МЕЛКОГО КОСМИЧЕСКОГО МУСОРА, ЕЁ ВЛИЯНИИ НА БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ КОСМИЧЕСКОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ И ЭКОЛОГИЮ ЗЕМЛИ
    КОСМИЧЕСКИЙ МУСОР: ФУНДАМЕНТАЛЬНЫЕ И ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЕ АСПЕКТЫ УГРОЗЫ, 2019 , p. 20-32

    Оцениваются количество, масса и динамика популяции мелкого космического мусора в низкоорбитальной области, а также последствия (с точки зрения прогрессирующего продолжения засорения космоса) реализации планов развёртывания здесь многоаппаратных коммуникационных космических систем. Последнее делает исследование этой области особенно актуальным. Рассматриваются различные аспекты последствий техногенного засорения околоземного космоса, особенности опасности со стороны мелкого космического мусора для космической деятельности и экологии Земли и околоземного пространства в сравнении с опасностью со стороны крупного мусора. Отмечается существенный недостаток полных и надёжных сведений о мелком космическом мусоре из-за дефицита средств, способных его наблюдать.

  • БЕСЕДИНА А.Н., КАБЫЧЕНКО Н.В., ПАВЛОВ Д.В., ВОЛОСОВ С.Г. ИНСТРУМЕНТАЛЬНЫЕ МЕТОДЫ РАСШИРЕНИЯ АМПЛИТУДНО-ЧАСТОТНОЙ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ ГЕОФОНА
    СЕЙСМИЧЕСКИЕ ПРИБОРЫ, 2019, vol. 55, No. 3, p. 5-23

    Для решения различных инженерных задач часто требуется регистрация сигналов в диапазоне 0.1-2000 Гц. Нижняя граница этого диапазона выходит за пределы рабочей полосы геофонов. В данной работе рассмотрено расширение частотных характеристик геофона двумя способами: путем перемножения передаточных функций и путем введения отрицательного сопротивления. Оценены пределы применимости этих методов. Верхний предел скорости, регистрируемой геофоном, определяется зазором, в котором катушка смещается относительно рамки датчика. Нижний предел зависит от общего инструментального шума измерительного канала, основной вклад в который вносят броуновский шум механической колебательной системы и шум измерительной схемы. Прототип устройства был построен на основе перемножения передаточных функций. С помощью лабораторных измерений на вибрационном столе и записей микросейсмического шума было показано, что модифицированный геофон работает как датчик скорости с собственной частотой 2 Гц. Это значение зависит от микросейсмических условий места размещения измерительной системы. При регистрации сейсмичности с помощью модифицированного геофона удалось зарегистрировать массовые взрывы в камерах шахты и карьерные взрывы в диапазоне частот до 2 Гц. Таким образом, проведенные исследования позволяют сделать вывод, что модифицированный геофон можно использовать для мониторинга локальной и региональной сейсмичности в качестве аналога короткопериодных сейсмометров.

  • НАЧЕВ В.А., КАЗАК А.В., ТУРУНТАЕВ С.Б. PHYSICO-MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF MECHANICAL PROCESSES OF ROCK FRACTURING AT THE MICROAND NANO-SCALES
    PROНЕФТЬ. ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНО О НЕФТИ, 2019, vol. 4, No. 14, p. 47-55

    Надежный прогноз распространения трещин в ходе гидравлического разрыва пласта (ГРП) в нетрадиционных коллекторах является сложной задачей, которая требует изучения механических параметров, микроструктуры, упругих и прочностных характеристик горных пород. Цель данной работы заключается в исследовании механических параметров коллекторов в микромасштабе и оценке условий, которые необходимо создать в нетрадиционных коллекторах для получения разветвленной сети трещин. Создание такой сети трещин позволяет повысить эффективность воздействия на пласт и обеспечить добычу из изолированных ранее пор. Для достижения цели предложен метод, включающий подготовку набора данных, содержащих петрофизические и геомеханические характеристики и сведения о минеральном составе, подготовку и инициализацию двумерных и трехмерных микромасштабных цифровых моделей горных пород, численное моделирование их напряженно-деформированного состояния и распространения в них трещин. В статье проводятся результаты экспериментальных исследований по определению механических параметров образцов горных пород, компьютерной томографии (3D КТ) до и после образования трещин, сканирования электронным микроскопом (2D QEMSCAN) и определения минерального состава горных пород. Выполнены мультимодальная сегментация и обработка данных 2D QEMSCAN и 3D micro-CT для построения трехмерных цифровых моделей горных пород. Затем на трехмерной сегментированной цифровой модели породы построена расчетная сетка, которая была загружена в механический симулятор, где матрице породы были присвоены определенные ранее механические свойства. В результате численного моделирования определено напряженно-деформированное состояние горных пород для различных условий нагружения и выбраны условия, при которых происходит наибольшее трещинообразование. Приведен пример использования предложенного метода для исследования наиболее перспективного российского нетрадиционного газового коллектора с размером пор до десятков нанометров.

  • АДУШКИН В.В., АКСЁНОВ О.Ю., ВЕНИАМИНОВ С.С., КОЗЛОВ С.И. ОБ ОЦЕНКЕ ОПАСНОСТИ МЕЛКОГО КОСМИЧЕСКОГО МУСОРА ДЛЯ КОСМИЧЕСКОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ И ЭКОЛОГИИ ЗЕМЛИ
    ВОЗДУШНО-КОСМИЧЕСКАЯ СФЕРА, 2019, vol. 3, No. 100, p. 72-81

    В отличие от влияния крупного космического мусора влияние мелкого на космическую деятельность и экологию Земли и околоземного пространства часто недооценивают. В статье показано, что это несправедливо. По данным из различных источников оцениваются количество, масса и динамика популяции мелкого космического мусора в низкоорбитальной области и его опасность для космической деятельности, а также последствия (с точки зрения прогрессирующего засорения космоса) реализации планов развертывания в низкоорбитальной области многоаппаратных коммуникационных космических систем. Последнее придает исследованию этой области особенную актуальность. Рассматриваются различные аспекты последствий техногенного засорения околоземного космоса, особенности опасности со стороны мелкого космического мусора для космической деятельности и экологии Земли и околоземного пространства в сравнении с опасностью со стороны крупного мусора. Отмечается существенный недостаток полных и надежных сведений о мелком космическом мусоре из-за дефицита средств, способных его наблюдать.

Прочие публикации

  • B. Gavrilov, Y. Poklad, I. Ryakhovskiy The Influence of the Lower Ionospheric Disturbances on the Operating Conditions of Navigation Satellite Systems
    , 2019 , p. 1

    The study of the impact of ionospheric disturbances on the conditions of functioning of satellite communication and navigation systems and the development of methods to reduce this effect requires the development of methods for evaluating the parameters of ionospheric disturbances and their spatial and temporal distribution. Studies show that electron concentration disturbances, which can have a significant impact on the functioning of transionospheric radio channels, can occur both in the upper and lower ionosphere. At the same time, the methods of studying the dynamics of ionospheric disturbances in the lower ionosphere are not enough developed, and the interrelation of the lower and upper perturbations of the ionosphere is insufficiently studied. The aim of the work is an experimental study of disturbances of the upper and lower ionosphere in order to clarify the mechanisms of their relationship and study the spatiotemporal distribution of mid-latitude disturbances. The results obtained show that the contribution of the electron density disturbances in the D region to the total electron content of the ionosphere can be significant and considerably depends on the type of heliogeophysical processes.

  • Popova O., Borovička J., Campbell-Brown M.D. Modelling the Entry of Meteoroids
    , 2019 , p. 9-36

    Meteoroids are most easily studied using the atmosphere as a detector. Under the right conditions, the passage of the meteoroid through the atmosphere may result in a meteorite falling to Earth or even the formation of an impact crater, but in most cases only the luminosity and ionization are available for analysis. Therefore, meteoroid properties (physical, chemical and all other possible properties) need to be determined through observations. The most obvious way to evaluate meteoroid properties is to apply a model to fit the observational data. Due to the variety of physical conditions that occur during the entry of meteoroids into the atmosphere, modelling efforts require the use of a wide range of different models- from sputtering of the surface under direct impacts of particles up to high-fidelity gasdynamical modelling. When starting to analyze observational data or to describe any physical phenomenon connected with meteors and bolides, one needs to understand clearly in what conditions this phenomenon is occurring and what physical processes need to be taken into account. This chapter reviews current entry models and discusses their boundaries and limitations.

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A. Geomagnetic Variations during Strong Earthquakes
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2019, vol. 55, No. 6, p. 811-820

    We analyze the geomagnetic effect caused by the strong earthquakes using the data from the Geophysical Observatory "Mikhnevo" (MHV) of Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences (IDG RAS) and from a number of observatories of the international INTERMAGNET network. It is shown that seismic events are accompanied by characteristic variations in the Earth's magnetic field. These induced geomagnetic variations contain a clearly pronounced short-period component with a period of similar to 0.5-0.8 min which is recorded during shallow earthquakes and a long-period component (similar to 5-20 min) observed in the most cases. The maximum amplitudes of the induced geomagnetic variations are similar to 1.5-5 and similar to 2-20 nT for the short-period and long-period components, respectively. It is noted that the induced geomagnetic perturbations recorded by the observatories at significantly different distances from the source of the earthquake feature almost simultaneous and morphologically similar behavior.

  • Ostapchuk A.A., b,Morozova K.G.,Pavlov D.V. Influence of the Structure of a Gouge-Filled Fault on the Parameters of Acoustic Emission
    Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 2019, vol. 105, No. 5, p. 759-765

    Presented are the results of laboratory experiments on investigating manifestations of acoustic emission (AE) of a gouge-filled fault during stick-slip. The laboratory experiments were held at the slider-model setup, when a granite block slides along a rough granite base under normal and shear loads. In the course of experiments we altered the structure of the two-component filler of the fault and focused on variations of the AE parameters. The kinematic parameters of fault slip events in all the realizations remained approximately the same. The effect of gouge structure on the statistics of AE has been revealed. An alteration of proportion of quartz sand / glass beads in the filler of the fault was accompanied by an alteration of the b-value of frequency-energy distribution from 0.53 to 0.85, and the p-value of Omori law from 1.00 to 2.06. Also, it has been demonstrated that the nucleation of a slip event is accompanied by an alteration of the mechanism of AE generation – at the initial stage the ‘tensile crack’ signals prevailed, while at the final stage – the ‘shear crack’ signals did. The alteration of AE genesis manifested vividly in a corresponding alteration of the emitted waveforms for all the realizations.

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в базу реферативной информации Web of Science, Scopus

  • Turuntaev S.B., Riga V.Yu. Rate-state based simulation of laboratory and natural induced seismicity
    88th Society of Exploration Geophysicists International Exposition and Annual Meeting, 2018 , p. 5002-5006

    Several variants of rate-state equations were considered in application to description of laboratory data on block sliding under normal and shear stresses. Both acoustic emission and stick-slip motion of the block were registered and considered as an analog of ordinary and slow earthquakes. Various types of fluids were added to the filler between the moving and stationary blocks. Obtained results on the block sliding were compared with numerical simulations which were conducted using several variants of the rate-state equations, and the best matching model was chosen for further study. With the help of that model, the seismic activity induced by fluid injection during Basel project was simulated. It was shown, that some long-term aftereffects of the fluid injection can be explained by specific value of the interblock stiffness related to the surround rock stiffness.

  • Melosh H.J., Ivanov B.A. Slow Impacts on Strong Targets Bring on the Heat
    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 2018, vol. 45, No. 6, p. 2597-2599

    An important new paper by Kurosawa and Genda (2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL076285) reports a previously overlooked source of heating in low velocity meteorite impacts. Plastic deformation of the pressure-strengthened rocks behind the shock front dissipates energy, which appears as heat in addition to that generated across the shock wave itself. This heat source has surprisingly escaped explicit attention for decades: First, because it is minimized in the geometry typically chosen for laboratory experiments; and second because it is most important in rocks, and less so for the metals usually used in experiments. Nevertheless, modern numerical computer codes that include strength do compute this heating correctly. This raises the philosophical question of whether we can claim to understand some process just because our computer codes compute the results correctly

  • Riabova S., Spivak A. Synchronous Changes of Geophysical Fields in the Earth’s Near-Surface Zone
    PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT PROCESSES, 2018 , p. 90-98

    The research of Earth's physical fields and their variations is particularly important to establish causes and mechanisms of changes in the environment and in the climate. The results of the analysis of instrumental observation concerning the variations in electric and magnetic fields, as well as acoustic vibrations in the near-surface Earth zone are considered in relation to the variations of meteorological parameters. We used the results of synchronous observations concerning physical fields carried out in the period of 2011-2014 in conductions of Geophysical observatory "Mikhnevo" of Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Science (IDG RAS) (Russia, Moscow region, settlement Mikhnevo; 54.959 degrees N, 37.766 degrees E). Synchronism of the variations of mentioned geophysical fields and change in atmospheric parameters has been determined, and for the first time not only synchronous, but advanced manifestations of geomagnetic field perturbations are shown, we introduce a new parameter - "reverse" magnetic tipper, variations of which due to atmospheric disturbances are more strongly marked in comparison with the variations of magnetic tipper.

  • Trimonova M., Zenchenko E., Baryshnikov N., Turuntaev S., Zenchenko P., Aigozhieva A. Estimation of the Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Rate in the Laboratory Experiment
    PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT PROCESSES, 2018 , p. 259-268

    In this paper we present the results of the laboratory experiment aimed at the research of the hydraulic fracture propagation rate. The laboratory experiment was carried out according to similarity criteria. The fracture growth rate was determined by one direct method and two indirect methods. The direct method was based on registering the formation of the fracture by conductive strips. The first indirect method was based on the variations of the pressure in the well. The second one was based on a numerical solution of the problem of hydraulic fracture propagation.

  • Vinogradov E., Gorbunova E., Besedina A., Kabychenko N. Earth Tide Analysis Specifics in Case of Unstable Aquifer Regime
    Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2018, vol. 175, No. 5, p. 1783-1792

    We consider the main factors that affect underground water flow including aquifer supply, collector state, and distant earthquakes seismic waves’ passage. In geodynamically stable conditions underground inflow change can significantly distort hydrogeological response to Earth tides, which leads to the incorrect estimation of phase shift between tidal harmonics of ground displacement and water level variations in a wellbore. Besides an original approach to phase shift estimation that allows us to get one value per day for the semidiurnal M2 wave, we offer the empirical method of excluding periods of time that are strongly affected by high inflow. In spite of rather strong ground motion during earthquake waves’ passage, we did not observe corresponding phase shift change against the background on significant recurrent variations due to fluctuating inflow influence. Though inflow variations do not look like the only important parameter that must be taken into consideration while performing phase shift analysis, permeability estimation is not adequate without correction based on background alternations of aquifer parameters due to natural and anthropogenic reasons.

  • Varypaev A., Kushnir A. Algorithm of micro-seismic source localization based on asymptotic probability distribution of phase difference between two random stationary Gaussian processes
    GEM-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON GEOMATHEMATICS, 2018, vol. 9, No. 2, p. 335-358

    The article is devoted to the problem of estimating the coordinates of micro-seismic sources (localizing the sources) using multichannel data recorded by a surface seismic array. A new statistical algorithm is proposed for the source localization, which is mainly based on the phases of the Discrete Finite Fourier Transforms of the array sensor seismograms. This algorithm was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood concept under the following constraints: (a) noise components of the array seismograms are statistically independent stationary Gaussian processes with different power spectral densities; (b) the signal-to-noise ratios in the array seismograms are small, but the duration of signals generated by a micro-seismic source in the sensors is quite large; (c) the time function of a micro-seismic source can be approximated by a stationary Gaussian random process. The asymptotic probability density function was obtained in the paper for the phase differences of two Gaussian stationary random time series. This function provided a theoretical basis for constructing the new statistical phase algorithm. The algorithm requires evaluation of the coherence functions for all pairs of the sensor seismograms. For this reason, it inquires more calculations for the source localization than the known phase algorithms. But Monte Carlo simulation has shown that the new phase algorithm provides a more accurate estimation of micro-seismic source coordinates compared to the most popular phase algorithm.

  • Veniaminov S., Klyushnikov V., Kozlov S., Nagorskiy P. Launch malfunctions and space weather factors
    ACTA ASTRONAUTICA, 2018, vol. 150 , p. 33-38

    The space rocket launch malfunctions frequency has been analyzed depending on the level and the phase of solar activity cycle and the season of year. Comparative analysis of the temporal variations of the relative number of failed launches in Russian Federation and the United states has been conducted. It was stated that those variations were anti-persistent. It was shown that for the phase of rise of solar activity the relative amount of failed launches both in Russian Federation and the United states exceeds the similar values for that of its decline. However, an explicit dependence between solar activity and the amount of failed launches is not observed.

  • Gerke K.M., Vasilyev R.V., Khirevich S., Collins D., Karsanina M.V., Sizonenko T.O., Korost D.V., Lamontagne S., Mallants D. Finite-difference method Stokes solver (FDMSS) for 3D pore geometries: Software development, validation and case studies
    Computers and Geosciences, 2018, vol. 114 , p. 41-58

    Permeability is one of the fundamental properties of porous media and is required for large-scale Darcian fluid flow and mass transport models. Whilst permeability can be measured directly at a range of scales, there are increasing opportunities to evaluate permeability from pore-scale fluid flow simulations. We introduce the free software Finite-Difference Method Stokes Solver (FDMSS) that solves Stokes equation using a finite-difference method (FDM) directly on voxelized 3D pore geometries (i.e. without meshing). Based on explicit convergence studies, validation on sphere packings with analytically known permeabilities, and comparison against lattice-Boltzmann and other published FDM studies, we conclude that FDMSS provides a computationally efficient and accurate basis for single-phase pore-scale flow simulations. By implementing an efficient parallelization and code optimization scheme, permeability inferences can now be made from 3D images of up to 109 voxels using modern desktop computers. Case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of the FDMSS software for both natural and artificial porous media.

  • Svetsov V.V., Shuvalov V.V. Thermal radiation and luminous efficiency of superbolides
    Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2018, vol. 503 , p. 10-16

    We carried out numerical modeling of impacts of asteroids and icy bodies with a diameter from 30 m to 100 m and calculated radiation fluxes on the ground, luminous efficiencies and areas of potential fire. The integral luminous efficiency of impactors with a diameter of 30 m entering the atmosphere at acute angles can reach 20 and 40% for stony and icy bodies respectively, and the impacts of 100-m asteroids can initiate forest fires in areas with dimensions of 100 km.

  • Karsanina M.V., Gerke K.M., Skvortsova E.B., Ivanov A.L., Mallants D. Enhancing image resolution of soils by stochastic multiscale image fusion
    Geoderma, 2018, vol. 314 , p. 138-145

    Soil structure defines major physical properties and biophysical functions of soils. Imaging soil structure using different 2/3D techniques is a routine methodology used by soil scientists. Still, for structured soils their spatial variability and hierarchical structure imposes a significant challenge for all imaging methods in terms of field-of-view and resolution trade-off. While creating a truly multiscale 3D digital model of soil is without question of utmost importance, there is currently no single imaging method that could potentially encompass all necessary relevant soil scales within a single image. In this paper, we tested for the first time an image fusion technique to produce a multiscale soil image based on separate images obtained with different spatial resolutions. The method is based on universal soil structure descriptors, i.e. spatial correlation functions, which were shown to be very useful in soil applications. Using a relatively simple 2D test case based on X-ray tomography (XCT) images at three different scales, we show the applicability of image fusion for soil images and solve a long standing problem of imaging resolution. In total we fused seven images into a single image: one 114 μm resolution macroscale XCT image (porosity <0.01), four 15 μm resolution microscale XCT images (with porosities 0.039–0.049), and two 3.3 μm resolution microscale XCT images (with porosities of 0.24 and 0.76). The resulting single, 15 μm resolution image represented 6 × 6 cm2 of soil structure. Its porosity increased from <0.01 to 0.073 due to representation of all pore sizes visible on the images prior to fusion. Current drawbacks of the approach are discussed and an outline is provided of its future usage to address important soil structure issues.

  • Bray V.J., Atwood-Stone C., Neish C.D., Artemieva N.A., McEwen A.S., McElwaine J.N. Lobate impact melt flows within the extended ejecta blanket of Pierazzo crater
    ICARUS, 2018, vol. 301 , p. 26-36

    Impact melt flows are observed within the continuous and discontinuous ejecta blanket of the 9 km lunar crater Pierazzo, from the crater rim to more than 40 km away from the center of the crater. Our mapping, fractal analysis, and thermal modeling suggest that melt can be emplaced ballistically and, upon landing, can become separated from solid ejecta to form the observed flow features. Our analysis is based on the identification of established melt morphology for these in-ejecta flows and supported by fractal analysis and thermal modeling. We computed the fractal dimension for the flow boundaries and found values of D = 1.05–1.17. These are consistent with terrestrial basaltic lava flows (D = 1.06–1.2) and established lunar impact melt flows (D = 1.06–1.18), but inconsistent with lunar dry granular flows (D = 1.31–1.34). Melt flows within discontinuous ejecta deposits are noted within just 1.5% of the mapping area, suggesting that the surface expression of impact melt in the extended ejecta around craters of this size is rare, most likely due to the efficient mixing of melts with solid ejecta and local target rocks. However, if the ejected fragments (both, molten and solid) are large enough, segregation of melt and its consequent flow is possible. As most of the flows mapped in this work occur on crater-facing slopes, the development of defined melt flows within ejecta deposits might be facilitated by high crater-facing topography restricting the flow of ejecta soon after it makes ground contact, limiting the quenching of molten ejecta through turbulent mixing with solid debris. Our study confirms the idea that impact melt can travel far beyond the continuous ejecta blanket, adding to the lunar regolith over an extensive area.

  • Turrini D., Svetsov V., Consolmagno G., Sirono S., Jutzi M. The late accretion and erosion of Vesta's crust recorded by eucrites and diogenites as an astrochemical window into the formation of Jupiter and the early evolution of the Solar System
    ICARUS, 2018, vol. 311 , p. 224-241

    The circumsolar disc was the birthplace of both planetesimals and giant planets, yet the details of their formation histories are as elusive as they are important to understand the origins of the Solar System. For decades the limited thickness of Vesta's basaltic crust, revealed by the link between the asteroid and the howardite-eucrite-diogenite family of meteorites, and its survival to collisional erosion offered an important constraint for the study of these processes. Some results of the Dawn mission, however, cast doubts on our understanding of Vesta's interior composition and of the characteristics of its basaltic crust, weakening this classical constraint. In this work we investigate the late accretion and erosion experienced by Vesta's crust after its differentiation and recorded in the composition of eucrites and diogenites and show that it offers an astrochemical window into the earliest evolution of the Solar System. In our proof-of-concept case study focusing on the late accretion and erosion of Vesta's crust during the growth and migration of Jupiter, the water enrichment of eucrites appears to be a sensitive function of Jupiter's migration while the enrichment in highly-siderophile elements of diogenites appears to be particularly sensitive to the size-frequency distribution of the planetesimals. The picture depicted by the enrichments created by late accretion in eucrites and diogenites is not qualitatively affected by the uncertainty on the primordial mass of Vesta. Crustal erosion, instead, is more significantly affected by said uncertainty and Vesta's crust survival appears to be mainly useful to study violent collisional scenarios where highly energetic impacts can strip significant amounts of vestan material while limitedly contributing to Vesta's late accretion. While our proof-of-concept case study is based on a simplified physical model and explores only a limited set of scenarios, our results suggest that the astrochemical record of the late accretion and erosion of Vesta's crust provided by eucrites and diogenites can be used as a tool to investigate any process or scenario associated to the evolution of primordial Vesta and of the early Solar System.

  • Shkuratov Y., Basilevsky A., Kaydash V., Ivanov B., Korokhin V., Videen G. Surface erosion and sedimentation caused by ejecta from the lunar crater Tycho
    PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 151 , p. 130-140

    We use Kaguya MI images acquired at wavelengths 415, 750, and 950 nm to map TiO2 and FeO content and the parameter of optical maturity OMAT in lunar regions Lubiniezky E and Taurus-Littrow with a spatial resolution of 20 m using the Lucey method [Lucey et al., JGR 2000, 105. 20,297]. We show that some ejecta from large craters, such as Tycho and Copernicus may cause lunar surface erosion, transportation of the eroded material and its sedimentation. The traces of the erosion resemble wind tails observed on Earth, Mars, and Venus, although the Moon has no atmosphere. The highland material of the local topographic prominences could be mobilized by Tycho's granolometrically fine ejecta and caused by its transportation along the ejecta way to adjacent mare areas and subsequent deposition. The tails of mobilized material reveal lower abundances of Ti and Fe than the surrounding mare surface. We have concluded that high-Ti streaks also seen in the Lubiniezky E site, which show unusual combinations of the TiO2 and FeO content on the correlation diagram, could be the result of erosion by Tycho's ejecta too. In these locations, Tycho's material did not form a consolidated deposit, but resulted in erosion of the mare surface material that became intermixed, consequently, diluting the ejecta. The Taurus-Littrow did provide evidence of the mechanical effect of Tycho's ejecta on the local landforms (landslide, secondary craters) and do not show the compositional signature of Tycho's ejecta probably due to intermixing with local materials and dilution.

  • Kartashova A.P., Popova O.P., Glazachev D.O., Jenniskens P., Emel'yanenko V.V., Podobnaya Е.D., Skripnik A.Y. Study of injuries from the Chelyabinsk airburst event
    PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 160 , p. 107-114

    The ∼20-m sized asteroid that entered the Earth's atmosphere at 19 km/s over the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia on February 15, 2013, broke and deposited ∼500 kt of kinetic energy at 45–25 km altitude, causing an airburst strong enough to create widespread glass damage. The shockwave hit a densely populated area. More than a thousand people asked for medical assistance at hospitals. In this paper, we analyze the available information about how many and what type of injuries were sustained. We combine previously collected data from government reports and from phone and internet surveys shortly after the event with newly collected data from local hospitals. As expected, the percentage of injuries was highest near the asteroid trajectory, but surprisingly the type of injury (cuts or bruises) do not show dependence on the distance from the asteroid trajectory. Results are compared to asteroid impact risk assessment models. The results provide insight for first responders in future asteroid impacts and help to rеfine these models.

  • Adushkin V.V. Technogenic tectonic seismicity in Kuzbass
    RUSSIAN GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS, 2018, vol. 59, No. 5, p. 571-583

    This paper presents an analysis of the development of the current seismic state of the Kuznetsk coal basin, which is characterized by an increase in technogenic seismicity of different types under the influence of prolonged intensive mining operations. The development of technogenesis led to a significant increase in technogenic seismicity in the Kuznetsk Basin in the 1970-1980s, when the number of technogenic earthquakes began to exceed the number of natural earthquakes. Among the various types of induced seismicity, special attention is paid to strong technogenic tectonic earthquakes with a regional magnitude M-b > 3 and, accordingly, a seismic energy release of more than 10(9) J, i.e., earthquakes of energy class K > 9. These small-focus earthquakes are often accompanied by destruction of underground mines, collapse of quarries and pits, damage to surface facilities and equipment, and other adverse effects. In this paper, such earthquakes are defined as technogenic tectonic to emphasize their dual origin: technogenic impacts and the subsequent relaxation of tectonic stresses. It is also noted that the Earth's interior in Kuzbass initially had its own natural seismicity and a developed system of tectonic faults. Natural seismotectonic activity combined with constantly increasing scales of mining and explosive consumption has led to an increase in the number of technogenic seismic events and their intensity. A striking example of such an event was the 18 June, 2013 Bachat earthquake with a regional magnitude M-b = 5.8 and a seismic intensity of 7 in the epicentral zone. It was the world's largest man-made earthquake induced by the mining of solid minerals. We consider the possible causes of this catastrophic earthquake and discuss the conditions favoring the formation of foci of such technogenic tectonic earthquakes resulting from changes in the geodynamic and hydrogeological conditions in the Earth's crust under man-caused impacts. These induced changes in natural processes are accompanied by a change in the stress-strain state, resulting in the concentration of tectonic stresses at heterogeneities and in fault zones, which become sources of induced technogenic seismicity. The paper discusses the current period of the occurrence and increase in such anthropogenic seismicity in the Kuzbass region with increasing scales of coal mining and blasting. Over the last 20 years, the consumption of explosives at Kuzbass enterprises increased from 100-200 to 500-600 thousand tons per year, and, accordingly, the amounts of broken and transported rock increased from several million tons per year to a billion tons per year, which disturbed the dynamic equilibrium in the Earthis crust and changed the existing field of tectonic stresses. Moreover, the continuously increasing consumption of explosives has also increased the technogenic impact on the crust structures. The location of the epicenters of large-scale blasts inducing seismic events with regional magnitudes M-b = 3.0-4.5 has made it possible to identify regions with the greatest technogenic impact in Kuzbass. Using the data of the ISC seismological catalog, we separated seismic events with the above magnitudes into day and night ones. Since blasting work is forbidden at night, night seismic events are referred to as technogenic tectonic earthquakes (night event criterion). The maximum magnitude of seismic events induced by blasting operations in the Kuznetsk Basin was estimated at M-b<4.4. The annual number of technogenic tectonic earthquakes with 3.04.5 was determined based on the night event criterion. The regions of their occurrence were identified from the location of the epicenters of technogenic tectonic earthquakes. (C) 2018, V.S. Sobolev IGM, Siberian Branch of the RAS.

  • Kocharyan G.G., Ostapchuk A.A., Pavlov D.V. Traces of Laboratory Earthquake Nucleation in the Spectrum of Ambient Noise
    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 2018, vol. 8, No. 1, p. 10764

    The short-term forecast of earthquakes associated with fault rupture is a challenge in seismology and rock mechanics. The evolution of mechanical characteristics of a local fault segment may be encoded in the ambient noise, thus, converting the ambient noise to an efficient source of information about the fault stress-strain conditions. In laboratory experiments we investigate micro-vibrations of a block-fault system induced by weak external disturbances with the purpose of getting reliable evidence of how the system transits to the metastable state. We show that precursory changes of spectral characteristics of micro-vibrations are observed for the complete spectrum of failure modes. In the course of experiments we systematically change the properties of interface to perform the transition from stick-slip to steady sliding and observe the characteristics of micro-vibrations of the laboratory block-fault system. Detected were systematical alterations of the system natural frequency and those alterations were determined by the evolution of fault stiffness. The detected regularities suggest that the final stage of seismic event preparation can be revealed in analyzing the spectral characteristics of ambient noise. The detection of natural oscillations of a block-fault system can be a new useful tool to monitor active faults in real time.

  • Besedina A.N., Kishkina S.B., Pavlov D.V. Reaction of the Fault Zone to Periodic Seismic Impact by Example of the Korobkovo Ore Deposit
    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ADVANCED MATERIALS WITH HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE FOR NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND RELIABLE STRUCTURES, 2018, vol. 2051 , p. 020028

    In the mining process, fracture zones are subject to periodic explosions of considerable amplitude and duration that can lead to adverse consequences. For this reason, it is necessary to assess the possibility of a major seismic event even in tectonically quiet areas. This paper investigates the reaction of the fault zone that crosses the Korobkovo mineral deposit (Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, Russia) to periodic explosions during the annual mining process. Parametrization of mass explosions made it possible to identify regularities in the seismic activity of fault zones. The obtained results allow us to speak about the relatively stable state of the rock massif during the observation period.

  • Besedina A.N., Ostapchuk A.A. Microseismic ambient noise analysis for estimation of the deformation characteristics of a fault zone
    International Symposium on Hierarchical Materials: Development and Applications for New Technologies and Reliable Structures, 2018, vol. 2051 , p. 020029

    Fault stiffness is an integral parameter sensitive to the change in the stress-strain state of the fault zones. In this paper we present a new method for stiffness estimation based on an analysis of the dynamic parameters of the microseismic ambient noise. Data processing is based on cross-correlation of seismic noise components and cross-spectral analysis in a sliding window. The deformation characteristics were studied at small aperture (less than 100 m) in the high frequency range (hundreds of Hz) at the section of the fault zone of the Korobkovskoye ore deposit. The analysis carried out made it possible to determine the propagation velocity and length of the surface waves under study, and estimate the stiffness of the fault from the obtained data.

  • Besedina A.N., Ostapchuk A.A. Parametric analysis of the low-frequency seismic noise as the basis for monitoring changes of the stress-strain state of rock
    International Symposium on Hierarchical Materials: Development and Applications for New Technologies and Reliable Structures, 2018, vol. 2051 , p. 020030

    A shear stiffness of a fault is significantly reduced when the local fault area (the earthquake preparation zone) changes to a metastable state. The transition to a metastable state is clearly manifested in laboratory experiments as a decrease of the frequency of natural oscillations, which can be found in the seismic noise spectrum. To study this effect in nature we chose the Chilean subduction zone. Our research shows that the effect of frequency decrease is detected before the megathrust earthquakes. For weaker earthquakes this effect is not stable and depends on many external factors. The obtained results form the basis of a new method for estimation the stress-strain state of the fault zones and the short-term earthquake prediction method.

  • Gorbunova E.M., Besedina A.N., Vinogradov E.A. Reaction of the fluid saturated collector during passage of seismic waves
    International Symposium on Hierarchical Materials: Development and Applications for New Technologies and Reliable Structures, 2018, vol. 2051 , p. 020100

    Precision monitoring of the groundwater level has been carried out at the territory of the Mikhnevo geophysical observatory since 2008. Observations are conducted in two wells, which expose confined and unconfined aquifers. The paper considers the reaction of a fractured-pore reservoir to seismic waves from distant earthquakes. A comparative analysis of hydrogeological effects associated with the passage of seismic waves from distant earthquakes is performed in the high- and low-frequency ranges.

  • Ostapchuk A.A., Gorbunova E.M., Ruzhich V.V., Grigorieva A.V. Formation of heterogeneous internal structure of fault under long-term deformation
    International Symposium on Hierarchical Materials: Development and Applications for New Technologies and Reliable Structures, 2018, vol. 2051 , p. 020221

    The paper presents the first results of a complex study of rock samples collected along a cross-section of a local discontinuity of the Primorsky fault of the Baikal rift zone. The study includes petrographic and mineralogical analyses and laboratory friction testing. The main objective of the study is to determine the correlation between the structural properties of rock samples at the micro- and mesolevels and their friction properties during shear deformation. Petrographic analysis of rock samples showed that the most intensive deformations are localized in a very narrow area, in which signs of dynamic impacts on minerals during tectonic movements are observed. In turn, the analysis of frictional properties of rock samples on the slider-model setup showed that their friction behavior significantly depends on the degree of dynamo-metamorphic rocks.

  • Ostapchuk A.A., Pavlov D.V., Martynov V.S. Seismic and acoustic manifestation of the process of shear event nucleation in different frequency bands
    International Symposium on Hierarchical Materials: Development and Applications for New Technologies and Reliable Structures, 2018, vol. 2051 , p. 020222

    The results of small-scale (1m scale) field experiments involving a slider-model set up are presented. The experiments investigate the seismo-acoustic portrait of the process of preparation of dynamic events of different types. Regularities of radiation of elastic vibrations in the frequency band of 10 Hz to 80 kHz are studied. It is shown that radiation of elastic vibrations at frequencies less than 1 kHz takes place only at the moment of a large dynamic event, whereas high-frequency (>10 kHz) acoustic pulses are radiated during the entire seismic cycle. The analysis of alteration of seismo-acoustic pulse radiation in time in different frequency bands gives the new information about regularities of preparation of fault slip event at different scale levels.

  • Trimonova M.A., Zenchenko E.V., Turuntaev S.B., Golovin Yu.I., Samodurov A.A., Tyurin A.I., Dubinya N.V. Rock toughness importance for hydraulic fracture modeling
    International Symposium on Hierarchical Materials: Development and Applications for New Technologies and Reliable Structures, 2018, vol. 2051 , p. 020308

    The work is devoted to the study of rock fracture toughness importance for correct hydraulic fracturing simulations. The parameter characterizes the rock's ability to resist the fracture process. For numerical simulations of the fracture based on the postulates of the failure mechanics, the fracture toughness is one of the determining parameters along with the elastic properties of the rock and the injection conditions. The aim of the paper is to determine how much the fracture toughness affects the fracture length in the numerical model describing the laboratory experiments. The used laboratory setup made it possible to create conditions that determine the actual fracture process. The strength parameters of the model material were measured. In particular the fracture toughness was measured using indentation methods. Numerical model calibrated by the laboratory experiment was used to solve the postulated problem.

  • Lylova A.N., Sheldakova Yu.V., Kudryashov A.V., Samarkin V.V. Formation of doughnut and super-Gaussian intensity distributions of laser radiation in the far field using a bimorph mirror
    QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, 2018, vol. 48, No. 1, p. 57-61

    We consider the methods for modelling doughnut and super-Gaussian intensity distributions in the far field by means of deformable bimorph mirrors. A method for the rapid formation of a specified intensity distribution using a Shack - Hartmann sensor is proposed, and the results of the modelling of doughnut and super- Gaussian intensity distributions are presented.

  • Riabova S. Application of wavelet analysis to the analysis of geomagnetic field variations
    7th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences, 2018, vol. 1141 , p. 012146

    Wavelet analysis is becoming more popular in geophysics. It is used for numerous researches, including tropical convection, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, atmospheric cold fronts, temperature variations, the dispersion of ocean waves, and coherent structures in turbulent flows, number of sunspots etc. In this paper we research how informative is the application of wavelet analysis to the analysis of geomagnetic field variations at the mid-latitude observatory "Mikhnevo" of Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Science. We review continuous wavelet transform by focusing attention on such aspects as choice of mother wavelet, choice of scales, cone of influence, visualization of results, reconstruction of time series from wavelet transform and its application to estimate the Holder exponents and singularity spectra. In our work we use Morlet wavelet with frequency parameter of 6. In so doing, the reconstruction of the time series from the wavelet transform has a mean square error of 3.4%. The application of wavelet analysis made it possible to distinguish pronounced periodicities of the geomagnetic field with periods of 27, 13.5, 9, 6 days. In solar quiet-day variations is dominated by the 24- 12-, 8-, and 6-hour period components. An analysis of the modulus of the wavelet transform coefficients qualitatively indicates a scaling (close to the monofractal) character of the variations of the geomagnetic field in the diurnal range. Moreover, the intensity of periodic variations of geomagnetic variation isn't constant in time. The application of the method of wavelet transform modulus maxima confirmed the monofractal character of the diurnal variation for any solar activity. In contrast to the 1-day variation, the 27-day variation and its harmonics show a higher degree of multifractality during a maximum of solar activity in comparison with the minimum of solar activity.

  • Karsanina M.V., Gerke K.M. Hierarchical Optimization: Fast and Robust Multiscale Stochastic Reconstructions with Rescaled Correlation Functions
    Physical Review Letters, 2018, vol. 121, No. 26, p. 265501

    Stochastic reconstructions based on universal correlation functions allow obtaining spatial structures based on limited input data or to fuse multiscale images from different sources. Current application of such techniques is severely hampered by the computational cost of the annealing optimization procedure. In this study we propose a novel hierarchical annealing method based on rescaled correlation functions, which improves both accuracy and computational efficiency of reconstructions while not suffering from disadvantages of existing speeding-up techniques. A significant order of magnitude gains in computational efficiency now allows us to add more correlation functions into consideration and, thus, to further improve the accuracy of the method. In addition, the method provides a robust multiscale framework to solve the universal upscaling or downscaling problem. The novel algorithm is extensively tested on binary (two-phase) microstructures of different genesis. In spite of significant improvements already in place, the current implementation of the hierarchical annealing method leaves significant room for additional accuracy and computational performance tweaks. As described here, (multiscale) stochastic reconstructions will find numerous applications in material and Earth sciences. Moreover, the proposed hierarchical approach can be readily applied to a wide spectrum of constrained optimization problems

  • Toporovskiy V.V., Kudryashov A.V., Samarkin V.V., Skvortsov A.A., Pshonkin D.V., Sheldakova J.V. Small-size bimorph mirror with high spatial resolution of the electrodes
    International Conference Laser Optics, 2018, vol. 226 , p. 8435662

    Semipassive bimorph flexible mirrors is one of the most widely used devices for correction of the given laser beam intensity. However, the key disadvantage of these kind of mirrors is their low spatial resolution of the corrected phase. In this work, we present two approaches for increasing spatial resolution of the deformable mirrors - one to use a multilayer bimorph mirrors and another to put higher density of control electrodes and use ultrasonic welding to make the wire connection to these electrodes

  • Toporovskiy V.V., Kudryashov A.V., Samarkin V.V., Romanov P.N., Galaktionov I.V. Stacked-actuator deformable mirror for high-power lasers
    International Conference Laser Optics, 2018, vol. 94 , p. 8435677

    Conventional high-power lasers suffer from the wavefront aberrations, that significantly decrease the radiation power during the employment of the laser complex. For compensation of the wavefront distortions and improving the quality metrics of the radiation adaptive optics approaches are used. The 121-elements and the 19-elements stacked-actuator deformable mirrors for these kind of applications were developed.

  • Galaktionov I., Sheldakova J., Kudryashov A., Nikitin A. Laser beam focusing through the scattering medium using 14-, 32- and 48-channel bimorph mirrors
    International Conference Laser Optics, 2018, vol. 223 , p. 8435699

    Efficiency of the laser beam focusing through the scattering medium with known concentration values was numerically investigated. We used the response functions of 3 kinds of bimorph deformable mirrors - with 14, 32 and 48 electrodes. The algorithm for numerical correction were programmed. The obtained results shown that 14 electrodes (2 rings) are not enough to compensate for the distortions, produced by the scattering medium with the given concentration values.

  • Galaktionov I., Sheldakova J., Kudryashov A. Scattered laser beam control using bimorph deformable mirror
    International Conference Laser Optics, 2018, vol. 186 , p. 8435775

    The ability to focus laser beam β = 0.65 nm), propagated through the scattering medium, was investigated both numerically and experimentally. Numerical estimations were performed with the Monte Carlo simulation and Shack-Hartmann technique. Experimental setup with the bimorph mirror as a laser beam corrector and two kinds of sensors as feedback devices - Shack-Hartmann sensor and far-field focal spot analyzer - was designed. Three kinds of correction algorithms were tested and compared to each other.

  • Hartmann W.K., Daubar I.J., Popova O., Joseph E.C.S. Martian cratering 12. Utilizing primary crater clusters to study crater populations and meteoroid properties
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 53, No. 4, p. 672-686

    Images from Mars Global Surveyor and later images from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that roughly half of the meteoroids striking Mars (at meter to few decameter crater diameters) fragment in the Martian atmosphere, producing small clusters of primary impact craters. Statistics of these “primary clusters” yield valuable information about important Martian phenomena and properties of interplanetary bodies, including meteoroid behavior in the Martian atmosphere, bulk strengths of bodies striking Mars, and the fraction of Martian “field secondary” craters, a datum that would improve crater count chronometry. Many Martian impactors fragment at altitudes significantly higher than 18 km above the mean surface of Mars, and we find that most bodies striking Mars and Earth have low bulk strengths, consistent with crumbly or highly fractured objects. Applying statistics of primary clusters at various elevations and independent diameter bins, we describe a technique to estimate the percentage of semirandomly scattered “field secondary” craters. Our provisional estimate of this percentage, in the diameter range ~250 m down to ~22 m, is ~40% to ~80% of the total impacts, with the higher percentages at smaller diameters. Our data argue against earlier suggestions of overwhelming dominance by either primaries or secondaries in this diameter range.

  • Nikitin A.N., Baryshnikov N., Denisov D., Karasik V., Sakharov A., Romanov P., Sheldakova J., Kudryashov A. Comparative analysis of methods and optical-electronic equipment to control the form parameters of spherical mirrors
    Photonic Instrumentation Engineering V , 2018, vol. 10539 , p. 105390Z

    In this paper we consider two approaches widely used in testing of spherical optical surfaces: Fizeau interferometer and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Fizeau interferometer that is widely used in optical testing can be transformed to a device using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, the alternative technique to check spherical optical components. We call this device Hartmannometer, and compare its features to those of Fizeau interferometer.

  • Galaktionov I., Kudryashov A., Sheldakova J., Nikitin A., Samarkin V. Comparison of the efficiency of laser beam focusing through the scattering medium using 14- A nd 31-channel bimorph mirrors
    Conference on Laser Resonators, Microresonators and Beam Control, 2018, vol. 10518 , p. 1051818

    We investigated the ability to focus laser beam (λ = 0.65 nm), propagated through the scattering suspension of polystyrene microspheres in distilled water, by means of two bimorph mirrors. Shack-Hartmann sensor was used to measure the local slopes of the Poynting vector, and the CCD camera was used to measure the intensity of the focal spot in the far-field. Correction efficiency of the two bimorph deformable mirrors-with 14 and 31 control channels-were compared. Numerical and experimental investigation of the focusing improvement of the laser beam propagated through the scattering medium was performed.

  • Sheldakova J., Kudryashov A., Galaktionov I., Samarkin V., Nikitin A., Rukosuev A. Formation of the doughnut and Super-Gaussian intensity distribution by means of different types of wavefront correctors
    Conference on Laser Resonators, Microresonators and Beam Control, 2018, vol. 10518 , p. 105181E

    The transformation of an intensity distribution from Gaussian to a flattop, doughnut, etc. still is a very interesting and important task. And the necessary result could be obtained with the use of adaptive optics that changes the phase of the beam and modifies the shape of the focal spot in the far-field zone. In this paper, we present the flattop and doughnut beam formation result with the use of a bimorph and stacked-actuator deformable mirrors as well as LC phase modulator. The experimental results are also given.

  • Toporovskiy V., Skvortsov A., Kudryashov A., Samarkin V., Pshonkin D. High spatial resolution bimorph deformable mirror for laser beam control
    Conference on Laser Resonators, Microresonators and Beam Control, 2018, vol. 10518 , p. 1051821

    Formation and correction of the given laser beam intensity and phase is an important practical and scientific problem. Semipassive bimorph flexible mirror is one of the most widely used devices for this purpose. But the key disadvantage of these kind of mirrors is their low spatial resolution of the corrected phase. Mainly this problem occurs when one deals with the small aperture wavefront correctors. In this work we present two approaches to overcome this problem-one to use a multilayer bimorph (multimorph) mirrors and another to put higher density of control electrodes and use a special technique (ultrasonic welding) to make the wire connection to these electrodes. Here we also present a numerical model to simulate bimorph correctors, based on a variation approach of the finite elements method.

  • Sheldakova J., Kudryashov A., Rukosuev A., Nikitin A., Galaktionov I., Toporovsky V. Adaptive optical system for laser beam formation
    Optical Manipulation Conference, 2018, vol. 10712 , p. 107121A

    The process of remapping the intensity profile of a laser beam is presented. Bimorph deformable mirror was used to change the beam phase; the control signals for the mirror were calculated in accordance with both phase analysis and far-field intensity distribution measurements.

  • Toporovskiy V., Skvortsov A., Kudryashov A., Sheldakova J., Pshonkin D. High-resolution bimorph deformable mirror for laser beam shaping
    Laser Beam Shaping XVIII , 2018, vol. 10744 , p. 107440R

    The correction of the laser beam aberrations and the formation of the laser beam intensity is very important scientific task. This problem widely is being decided at this moment. The employment of the bimorph deformable mirrors for this kind of applications is very promising. But this type of the wavefront correctors has one reasonable shortcoming - low spatial resolution of the control electrodes, it doesn't allow to compensate for the high-order wavefront aberrations. This kind of aberrations is valuable for imaging applications, mainly if needs to reconstruct specific details. Therefore, we have to use the wavefront correctors with high spatial resolution of the electrodes. In this work we present two types of the bimorph deformable mirrors for solving this problem - multilayer bimorph (multimorph) mirrors and bimorph mirrors with high density of the control electrodes. To place high number electrodes on the piezodisk the laser engraving technology was used, and ultrasonic welding technology used to make the wire connection to these electrodes. We developed the powerful numerical model to simulate bimorph mirrors.

  • Sheldakova J., Galaktionov I., Nikitin A., Rukosuev A., Kudryashov A. LC phase modulator vs. deformable mirror for laser beam shaping: What is better?
    Laser Beam Shaping XVIII, 2018, vol. 10744 , p. 107440S

    The latest results on intensity distribution transformation from Gaussian to a flattop and doughnut are presented in the paper. The wavefront was modified with bimorph deformable mirror to reach the desired intensity distribution in the farfield. LC phase modulator was also considered as an alternative device for laser beam shaping. The theoretical calculations and experimental results of the efficiency of different types of wavefront correctors are given.

  • Toporovskiy V., Kudryashov A., Samarkin V., Sheldakova J., Rukosuev A. Water-cooled stacked-actuator deformable mirror for high CW power laser beam correction
    Unconventional and Indirect Imaging, Image Reconstruction, and Wavefront Sensing, 2018, vol. 10772 , p. 107720U

    During propagation of the high-power laser radiation through atmosphere the quality of the beam is significantly reduced due to atmosphere turbulence. For compensation of the wavefront distortions and improving quality of radiation, as a rule, adaptive optics approaches are used. The design and main characteristics of 121-element water-cooled stacked-actuator deformable mirror for this kind of applications is discussed in this paper.

  • Unconventional and Indirect Imaging, Image Reconstruction, and Wavefront Sensing Fast adaptive optical system for 1.5 km horizontal beam propagation
    UNCONVENTIONAL AND INDIRECT IMAGING, IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION, AND WAVEFRONT SENSING 2019, 2018, vol. 10772 , p. 107720V

    Fast adaptive optical system can be used, for example, for correction of laser beam passed through a strong turbulent atmosphere. The frequency that such a system should operate with to achieve an acceptable level of wavefront correction is about 1 - 1.5 kHz. There are two most popular methods to develop this system: by using a standard PC computer and by using FPGA. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches. The results obtained with the use of these systems are presented. Recommendation for achieving higher performance are given.

  • Galaktionov I., Nikitin A., Samarkin V., Sheldakova J., Kudryashov A.V. Laser beam focusing through the scattering medium-low order aberration correction approach
    UNCONVENTIONAL AND INDIRECT IMAGING, IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION, AND WAVEFRONT SENSING 2019, 2018, vol. 10772 , p. 107720W

    Laser beam focusing (λ = 0.65 μm) through the scattering suspension of polystyrene microspheres in distilled water was investigated. Shack-Hartmann sensor was used to measure the local slopes of the Poynting vector, the CCD camera was used to measure the far-field focal spot's intensity. Numerical and experimental investigations of focusing efficiency of the two bimorph deformable mirrors - with 14 and 48 control channels - were performed.

  • Krasheninnikov A.V., Loktev D.N., Soloviev S.P. Atmospheric electric field in megacity aerosol pollution conditions
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 1083370

    We present the full-scale observational data of the near-ground electric field potential gradient in the megacity area and outside of its influence zone. The megapolis influence is manifested in an increase of signal amplitudes which is associated with the aerosol particles concentration difference. The obtained data analysis allows the technogenic aerosol megacity pollution level estimation. It is proposed to use the ratio of the averaged electric field potential gradient amplitudes at measurement sites as an integral pollution level indicator. Analytical expressions reflecting the integral pollution level indicator and the near-ground layer aerosol particle concentration relation are obtained.

  • Rybnov Y.S., Soloviev S.P., Krasheninnikov A.V., Solovyov A.V. Acoustic and electrical effects in the atmosphere surface layer due to some ionospheric sources
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108330Y

    We present experimental results of the study of acoustic gravity waves and electric field generation during auroras. Vertical component of electric field in the atmosphere surface layer and atmosphere pressure were recorded during the field study. Analysis of the obtained data shows that synchronous variations of the pressure and electric field strength appear with the development of auroras. It is seen that the amplitude of electric field perturbations is approximately proportional to the amplitude of variation in the pressure.

  • Spivak A.A., Rybnov Y.S., Soloviev S.P., Kharlamov V.A., Soloviev A.V Acoustic and electric field variations during strong frontal disturbances propagation
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 1083371

    Analysis of microbaric variations and variations of the electric field during atmosphere strong disturbances were carried out on the base of the data of instrumental registrations obtained in the geophysical observatory Mikhnevo of the Institute of Geospheres Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGD RAS). It is shown the hurricanes and storms are accompanied by high-amplitude variations of acoustic and electrical fields. Amplitudes of variations of these fields increase in a several hours before front arrival. This fact in the aggregate with meteorological parameters could be considered as a predicted indication of approaching hurricane or storms. It is determined that thundery front arrival is forestalled by long period electric field variations, internal gravity waves and increased acoustic impedance. Regularities, which were determined resulting from investigations, could be raise of forecast reliability and efficiency.

  • Rybnov Y.S., Spivak A.A., Kharlamov V.A., Soloviev A.V Infrasound noises of megapolis
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 1083372

    Given are results of analysis of data obtained by instrumental observations of infrasound vibrations performed in the area of Leninsky Avenue, Moscow. It was found that most intensive sources of infrasound are traffic lights and crossroads. Article illustrates difference in amplitude and spectral characteristics of infrasound depending on traffic flow regime. It contains date evidencing relation of infrasound noise with avenue load.

  • Adyshkin V.V., Rybnov Y.S., Spivak A.A., Kharlamov V.A. New approach to assessment of energy of sources of infrasound disturbances in atmosphere
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108330Z

    It describes new approach to assessment of energy sources of infrasound perturbations by spectrum of fluctuations in atmospheric pressure given stratigraphy of the atmosphere. It offers phenomenological model of spread of infrasound in standard atmosphere based on data of instrumental observations made during studying infrasound signals from powerful explosive atmospheric sources. There has been developed technique for assessment of energy which uses integral dependence of energy on power spectrum. Obtained results are consistent with known researches data.

  • Gavrilov B.G., Lyakhov A.N., Poklad Y.V. ,Rybakov V.A., Ryakhovsky I.A., Loseva T.V Geophysical effects of solar flare on 6 September 2017
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 1083397

    Solar flare on September 6, 2017 was one of the strongest in recent years. The powerful X-ray and ultraviolet radiation of the flash caused significant effects in the upper and lower ionosphere, in the geomagnetic field and surface electric field. The interrelation and spatio-temporal distribution of geophysical disturbances induced up by the flare and their influence on the accuracy of positioning of global navigation satellite systems are shown.

  • Poklad Y.V., Gavrilov B.G., Zetzer J.I., Kovalev A.T., Rybakov V.A. Trigger effect of the afterglow background medium after injection of the high speed plasma jet in the Fluxus and North Star experiments
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108339H

    The report analyzes the optical data received by the MSX satellite during Fluxus and North Star active rocket experiments, conducted in 1997 and 1999 on the injection of high-speed plasma jets into the ionosphere. It has been demonstrated that 1 to1.5 seconds after injection, the irradiation of the background medium increases. The brightness of the luminescence is associated with the bursts of the flow of precipitated electrons, stimulated by injection of a plasma jet.

  • Poklad Y.V., Rybnov Y.S., Gavrilov B.G., Ryakhovskiy I.A., Ermak V.M. The impact of the Chelyabinsk bolide on the lower ionosphere
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108339I

    The effect of infrasonic pulsed radiation from the Chelyabinsk bolide on the perturbations of the electron concentration in the D region of the Earth's ionosphere is considered. According to the electromagnetic measurements in the geophysical observatory Mikhnevo of the Institute of Geospheres Dynamics of Russian Academy of Science (IDG RAS), an estimate of the displacement of the reflection point of the SDV signals is obtained. Influence of infrasound radiation on the propagation of VLF signals on the Novosibirsk-Mikhnevo path is considered. The amplitude of the displacement of particles of the environment from infrasonic radiation is estimated. There is a good agreement between theoretical and experimental estimates.

  • Lyakhov A.N., Korsunskaya J.A., Poklad Y.V., Gavrilov B.G., Ryakhovsky I.A., Zetzer J.I., Losseva T.V., Bisyarin M.A., Kirillov V.V., Orlov A.B., Pronin A.E. The numerical simulation of the 2017 September solar X-flares impact on the midlatitude lower ionosphere
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108339M

    The progress in the physics and chemistry of the lower ionosphere depends on the verification of the numerical models on the experimental data. We establish the framework, that the lower ionosphere model can be considered as a valid one, only if the prediction for the VLF-LF radiowave propagation coincides with evidence both in amplitude and phase temporal dynamics. The extremely strong X-flares 06 and 10 September 2017 were chosen as a testbed for the empirical and theoretical models of the midlatitude lower ionosphere. Both models used GOES-15 X-ray flux measurements. Empirical model captures only the time moment of disturbance. Theoretical model captures the main feature in VLF response. We summarize the observed problems in simulation and prospective solutions as well.

  • Lyakhov A.N., Korsunskaya J.A., Gavrilov B.G., Ryakhovsky I.A., Bisyarin M.A., Kirillov V.V., Orlov A.B., Pronin A.E. Verification of the empirical lower ionosphere models on VLF observations at midlatitude Mikhnevo geophysical observatory
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108339N

    The empirical models of the lower ionosphere are used for fast prediction of VLF-LF propagation properties, for the initialization in the inverse problem solvers and as a climatological testbed for new numerical models. We used two widely used empirical models and verify them on the experimental VLF data from Mikhnevo geophysical observatory for 2014 year. Numerical results were obtained by parabolic equation method. The presented results prove the severe limitations of the current empirical models. The main bottlenecks are formulated.

  • Kozlov S.I., Lyakhov A.N., Yakubovskiy S.V., Bekker S.Z., Gavrilov B.G., Poklad Y.V., Ermak V.M. The requirement justification to the ionosphere models for the UHF-SHF radars
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108339O

    We discuss the role and the usage of the ionosphere models in the improvement of UHF-SHF radar operation. The up-to-date empirical ionosphere models (International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), Fully Analytical Ionosphere Model (FAIM), Ne-Quick2) have too crude spatial and temporal resolution. The aforementioned models cannot describe the localized irregularities (like traveling ionospheric disturbances or waves) which, in turn, are regularly observed at the midlatitude high frequency chirp ionosonde. In the presence of such irregularities the additional range error in UHF range can exceed 1-2 km. The poorly known quasi-random nature of such irregularities leads us to the unique solution, namely, the rejecting of the laminar layered ionosphere in favor of the random electron density field. Such new probabilistic ionosphere model must be elaborated and verified on the experimental data.

  • Bekker S.Z., Lyakhov A.N., Kozlov S.I., Ryakhovsky I.A. Verification of the deterministic-probabilistic model of the D -region of the ionosphere by the radio physical data obtained in the geophysical observatory Mikhnevo
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108339P

    The principles of the probabilistic-statistical modeling of the D-region of the ionosphere are described. The work is devoted to the calculation of electron concentration using deterministic-probabilistic modeling. In this work the electron concentration is calculated using the five-components system of the ionization-recombination cycle equations. Probability density functions (PDFs) of the input parameters of the model are used to solve the system. It was shown that theoretical PDFs of the Ne are in good agreement with two experimental databases of electron concentration. Results of the deterministic-probabilistic model are compared with the experimental VLF signals obtained in geophysical observatory Mikhnevo from the three transmitters in different heliogeophysical conditions.

  • Korsunskaya J.A., Lyakhov A.N. The analysis of the solar spectra dynamics under x-ray superflares in September 2017 for the geophysical applications
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108339X

    We present the results of the analysis for the GOES-15 and SDO satellites data under the extra strong solar X-class flares X9.3 September 06 2017 and X8.2 September 10 2017. It is shown that X9.3 flare was accompanied by the significant increasing of the UV flux and by the growth of the extremely hard X-ray part of the spectrum. The evidence from ionosondes, GPS receiver and Schumann resonance monitoring has shown different response to these neighbor flares. The flare classification based on the peak flux value is not sufficient for the geophysical applications. The interpretation of the ionosphere response requires the full spectrum analysis.

  • Ryakhovskiy I.A., Gavrilov B.G., Lyakhov A.N., Poklad Y.V., Bekker S.Z., Kozlov S.I. Ionization of the lower ionosphere during the x-ray solar flare on September 6, 2017
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108339Y

    In the study of the ionosphere total electron content (TEC), defined from the data of global navigation satellite systems, are widely used. It is assumed that the main contribution to the value of TEC is made by the F region. At the same time, the results of many studies show that during the X-ray flares the ionization of the D region can increase substantially, reaching values of 10 6 cm -3 . In this paper, we analyze the changes in the parameters of the D region during an X-class flare on September 6, 2017. It is shown that a correct interpretation of the variations of TEC with powerful X-ray flares requires taking into account of the contribution to its ionization value of the lower ionosphere.

  • Poklad Y.V., Ermak V.M., Ryakhovskiy I.A. Influence of local time and power of solar x-ray flashes of M and X classes on the variation of frequency of first mode of Schumann resonance
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 10833A2

    The paper presents the results of an analysis of the frequency variations of the first mode of the of Schumann resonator in the geophysical observatory Mikhnevo of the Institute of Geospheres Dynamics of Russian Academy of Science (IDG RAS) during solar X-ray flares of the M and X classes in 2011 - 2017. It is shown that the frequency variation depends not only on the flash class, but also on the magnetic field component and local time. It is suggested that this is due to the geometry of the path from the African Thunderstorm Activity Center.

  • Kuzmicheva M.Y., Ryakhovskiy I.A., Poklad Y.V., Gavrilov B.G., Lyakhov A.N. The influence of geometric factors and data processing algorithms on the error of GNSS position in the GFO mIHNEVO
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 10833A3

    The results of the analysis of the navigation task solution in the conditions of registration of the signals of the global navigation satellite systems GPS and GLONASS in the Mikhnevo GFO (the geophysical observatory) are presented. It is shown that in the classical algorithm, the choice of satellites from the observed constellation should be made not according to the criterion of elevation, but by the number of conditionality of the navigation task matrix. The use of adaptive iterative algorithms almost completely compensates geophysical perturbations while maintaining the twofrequency regime.

  • Solovyov A.V., Dulembaev M.V., Rybnov Y.S., Soloviev S.P., Popova O.P. The influences of urban planning and green spaces on the level of traffic noise
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108338D

    This paper describes the results of experimental study influences of urban planning and green spaces on the acoustic transport noises. The contribution of green spaces to the acoustic noise attenuation is shown.

  • Solovyov A.V., Smirnov A.V., Rybnov Y.S., Soloviev S.P., Popova O.P. Evaluation of the influence of sound and infrasound noise on simple human responses
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 108338E

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies of the effect of acoustic noise of the sound and infrasonic frequency bands on the auditory, visual, motor, tactile responses of a person, as well as on the time of making decisions. A method for estimating the time of human reactions was proposed, which was implemented by the authors as a software application for mobile devices. The obtained results unequivocally show an increase in the reaction time of all types under the influence of sound and infrasound noise even of a small level.

  • Rybakov V.A., Gavrilov B.G., Poklad Y.V., Ryakhovskiy I.A. Sensor cluster for the atmospheric electric field and currents registration at the Geophysical Observatory Mikhnevo
    International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 2018, vol. 10833 , p. 10833A8

    We study the surface electric field and the vertical atmosphere current at "Mikhnevo" geophysical observatory by means of a sensor cluster. The electric current sensor allows to disambiguate the displacement and conductive currents and to study their variations in sense of geophysical conditions. Data obtained under fair weather conditions and under significant perturbations are presented.

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A. Variations in the K-Index of Geomagnetic Activity in the Moscow Region
    IZVESTIYA ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC PHYSICS, 2018, vol. 54, No. 7, p. 705-710

    We present the results of a statistical analysis of geomagnetic activity measured at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (54.960° N; 37.774° E) located in Moscow region (central part of the Eastern European Platform) and its relation to the solar activity. We use the station geomagnetic K-index as a characteristic of the geomagnetic activity. We apply the results of instrumental observations of the geomagnetic field carried out at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory from 2009 to 2015 to calculate the K-index using the method of adaptive smoothing. The geophysical situation of the Moscow region is characterized by a significant number of days with a disturbed state of the geomagnetic field (in the period analyzed here, magnetic storms were recorded in 181 cases and a disturbed geomagnetic situation was identified in 333 cases). At the same time, there is a tendency for an increase in geomagnetic activity with time: from 2009 to 2015, the number of days with disturbed geomagnetic conditions increased almost eight times. The recurrence of geomagnetic disturbances is characterized by clearly pronounced periodicity with characteristic periods of about 2 weeks, 27 and 60 days, half a year, and 1 year. The total duration of geomagnetic disturbances, which is characterized by K ≥ 4, varies significantly with time. The evaluation of the correlation between the total monthly number of geomagnetic disturbances characterized by a value of K ≥ 3 and the parameter determining the intensity of solar radio emissions (flux density) at a frequency of 2800 MHz (with a wavelength of 10.7 cm) (F 10.7) provide evidence about the significant correlation between the number of geomagnetic disturbances and solar activity.

  • Spivak A.A., Rybnov Y.S., Soloviev S.P., Kharlamov V.A. Acoustic and Electric Precursors of Strong Thunderstorm Events under Megalopolis Conditions
    IZVESTIYA ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC PHYSICS, 2018, vol. 54, No. 7, p. 738 - 744

    Analysis of the results of instrumental observations of the electric field and micro-variations in the atmospheric pressure in the surface atmosphere during strong thunderstorms in Moscow in the period 2014−2016 is carried out. It is shown that the arrival of a thunderstorm front has been preceded by long-period (~10 min) variations in the electric field strength, internal gravity waves, and increased magnitudes of impedance acoustic correlation. After the arrival of a cold atmospheric front, as well as in the periods of thunderstorm events, high-frequency (~1 min) variations in the electric field and increased turbidity of the atmosphere are observed. Wind motions in the atmosphere are almost absent in the atmosphere, but internal gravity waves are observed at the final stage of the phenomena. The period of variations in the electric field increases up to ~15 min.

  • Veniaminov S.S., Klyushnikov V.Y., Kozlov S.I., Nagorskiy P.M. Analysis of Temporal Variations in Failed Missile Launches in the Soviet Union (Russia) and the United States
    COSMIC RESEARCH, 2018, vol. 56, No. 6, p. 480-487

    Temporal variations in the relative number of failed rocket launches in Russia (Soviet Union) and the United States have been compared to reveal that these variations are antipersistent. The accident rates of rocket and space equipment launches have been analyzed as a function of the level and phase of solar activity cycle. The relative number of failed launches in Russia (Soviet Union) and the United States for the growth phase of solar activity has been shown to exceed the number for the phase of solar activity decline, although no clear correlation between solar activity and the number of failed launches has been detected.

  • Kozlov S.I., Nilolaishvili S.S., Platov Y.V. Optical Phenomena Observed upon Some Launches of Russian Rockets
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2018, vol. 58, No. 1, p. 135-141

    In this paper, unusual optical phenomena observed in our country and abroad upon launches of Russian rockets are discussed and interpreted: they are regarded as the aftereffects of sunlight scattering by gas-dust clouds created by rocket fuel combustion products in different modes of engine operation. The results of instrumental observations of the clouds can be used to study physical processes in the upper atmosphere.

  • Ivanov B.A. Size-Frequency Distribution of Small Lunar Craters: Widening with Degradation and Crater Lifetime
    SOLAR SYSTEM RESEARCH, 2018, vol. 52, No. 1, p. 1-25

    The review and new measurements are presented for depth/diameter ratio and slope angle evolution during small (D < 1 km) lunar impact craters aging (degradation). Comparative analysis of available data on the areal cratering density and on the crater degradation state for selected craters, dated with returned Apollo samples, in the first approximation confirms Neukum's chronological model. The uncertainty of crater retention age due to crater degradational widening is estimated. The collected and analyzed data are discussed to be used in the future updating of mechanical models for lunar crater aging.

  • Shuvalov V.V., Khazins V.M. Numerical Simulation of Ionospheric Disturbances Generated by the Chelyabinsk and Tunguska Space Body Impacts
    SOLAR SYSTEM RESEARCH, 2018, vol. 52, No. 2, p. 129-138

    Numerical simulation of atmospheric disturbances during the first hours after the Chelyabinsk and Tunguska space body impacts has been carried out. The results of detailed calculations, including the stages of destruction, evaporation and deceleration of the cosmic body, the generation of atmospheric disturbances and their propagation over distances of thousands of kilometers, have been compared with the results of spherical explosions with energy equal to the kinetic energy of meteoroids. It has been shown that in the case of the Chelyabinsk meteorite, an explosive analogy provides acceptable dimensions of the perturbed region and the perturbation amplitude. With a more powerful Tunguska fall, the resulting atmospheric flow is very different from the explosive one; an atmospheric plume emerges that releases matter from the meteoric trace to an altitude of the order of a thousand kilometers.

  • Kuz'micheva M.Y. Heating of Ejecta from a Meteorite Crater by the Perturbed Atmosphere
    SOLAR SYSTEM RESEARCH, 2018, vol. 52, No. 2, p. 139 - 145

    Numerical simulation methods are used to investigate the thermal evolution of ejecta from a meteorite crater in the interaction with the perturbed atmosphere in the first few minutes after the impact. The study considers the role of air radiation, collisions of air molecules with the body’s surface, and the heat transfer into the interior in the heat exchange of the ejecta and reveals the possibility of additional heating (compared with that at the time of the impact), which affects the geochemical and paleomagnetic properties of the ejecta.

  • Svettsov V.V., Shuvalov V.V., Popova O.P. Radiation from a Superbolide
    SOLAR SYSTEM RESEARCH, 2018, vol. 52, No. 3, p. 195-205

    Numerical simulation of the destruction, evaporation, deceleration, and emission of the Chelyabinsk superbolide has been carried out. The model assumes that the main energy is radiated in the stage when the asteroid is already completely destroyed and does not have solidity (quasi-liquid approximation). The radiation transfer during the motion is taken into account in the approximation of radiative heat conductivity and volumetric emission. The distributions of temperatures and densities are obtained at the moments when the bolide is at different altitudes. The intensity of radiation at the Earth’s surface is calculated at certain times by solving the radiative transfer equation along the rays passing through the luminous region using the air and LL-chondrite vapor absorption coefficients. The features of superbolide radiation, the contribution of air and vapor to radiation, the size of the luminous region, and the radiation spectrum have been considered. The calculated efficiency of radiation—17% of the kinetic energy of a cosmic body—agrees with the results of observations. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the superbolide radiation, the determination of luminous efficiency from measurements can depend on the observation point. For estimations, the pointsource approximation can be used, but in general, the source luminous efficiency is unknown, and its location is determined with some error; therefore, numerical simulation is required to reliably estimate the consequences of space body falls.

  • Khazins V.M., Shuvalov V.V., Svettsov V.V. The Seismic Efficiency of Space Body Impacts
    SOLAR SYSTEM RESEARCH, 2018, vol. 52, No. 6, p. 547 - 556

    The numerical analysis of the propagation of shock waves initiated by either a space body striking the Earth’s surface, or underground explosions, allows us to compare the energies required to attain the same amplitudes of shock waves at impacts and explosions. Proceeding from this and based on the data of seismic efficiency of underground explosions, the authors have estimated the fraction of the kinetic energy of a space body transformed into the energy of seismic disturbances when the body strikes the Earth. This fraction is about 10–3, which is an order of magnitude more than the most common estimates. Space bodies decelerating and collapsing in the atmosphere also generate seismic waves in the ground due to the impact of the air-shock wave on the Earth’s surface. In this case, the seismic efficiency is considerably lower, according to the calculations, it is about 10–5.

  • Naroenkov S.A., Glazachev D.O., Kartashova A.P., Popova O.P., Turuntaev I.S. The Impact Effect Callculator of Celestial Body Impacts to the Earth: The Constructor of Hazardous Orbits
    SOLAR SYSTEM RESEARCH, 2018, vol. 52, No. 6, p. 534 - 546

    Quick assessment of hazardous effects from impacts of large celestial bodies is achieved through the development of a new consequence calculator. A distinctive feature of this calculator is a new block, the Hazardous-Orbit Constructor, which simulates the conditions of entry of a celestial body into the Earth’s atmosphere and determines the orbital parameters of the body based on given atmospheric entry conditions. This block is used to simulate the atmospheric entry conditions of known asteroids and meteoroids and to determine the orbital parameters of known bolides leading to meteorite fall events. For the case of asteroid 2008 TC3 and the Přibram meteorite, it is shown that within the potential impact area of the celestial body, the atmospheric entry angle may vary considerably.

  • Spungin V.G., Zykov D.S. Microseismicity in local areas: The southeastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield
    Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, 2018, vol. 12, No. 1, p. 56-66

    This paper summarizes the observations of microseismic emissions by these authors in several areas of the Russian part of the Fennoscandian Shield to assess the potential of microseismicity to determine the present-day activity of local features in the upper part of the geologic medium. We give amplitude-frequency characteristics and the space-time distribution of naturally occurring microseismic events that are hypothesized to be of endogenous origin. We discuss the relationships these characteristics have to the regional geodynamic setting, average dimensions, and petrographic composition of active rock blocks.

  • Bashilov I.P., Vereshchagin A.A., Volosov S.G., Merkulov V.A., Ryazantsev Y.V., Sachkov V.I., Chervinchuk S.Y. A New-Generation Borehole Electrodynamic Seismometer for Seismological Research
    Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, 2018, vol. 12, No. 2, p. 150 - 154

    This paper reports the development of a new-generation short-period borehole electrodynamic seismometer designed for research, with special emphasis on seismology and volcanology (Sobisevich et al., 2008) and for important applications (Bashilov, 2001), e.g., developing special monitoring and security systems, as well as the search for and monitoring of hydrocarbon exploration.

  • Bashilov I.P., Volosov S.G., Merkulov V.A., Rybakov N.P., Ryazantsev Y.V., Sukonkin S.Y., Chervinchuk S.Y. A Seismic Bottom Station Based on a Molecular Electron Seismometer for Shelf Areas and Transitional Zones
    Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, 2018, vol. 12, No. 6, p. 434 - 439

    This paper is concerned with the design of a portable seismic bottom station (PSBS) based on a molecular electron seismometer for research in seismology and volcanology (Sobisevich et al., 2008) and for dealing with a number of important applied problems (Bashilov, 2001) in the design of special monitoring systems, alarm systems, as well as the exploration and development of hydrocarbon deposits in shelf areas and transitional zones. The station is a further development of a portable bottom module, PBM (Bashilov et al., 2013) whose testing results are also presented in this article. The design has been modified and supplemented in response to the remarks made during testing on Lake Seliger (Bashilov et al., 2017).

  • Krasnoshchekov D.N., Ovtchinnikov V.M. The Density Jump at the Inner Core Boundary in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2018, vol. 478, No. 2, p. 219 - 223

    The results of analysis of more than 1300 new PKiKP/PcP amplitude ratios measured in Southeast Asia and South America at the epicentral distances of 3.2°–35.2° are presented. The density jump in the Eastern Hemisphere of the Earth’s inner core (IC) is 0.3 g/cm3, and it is 0.9 g/cm3 in the Western one. Taking the large discrepancy in the obtained estimates into consideration, maintenance of such large lateral variations in the mosaic properties of the IC reflecting surface requires considerable variations in the thermodynamic parameters (mostly temperature) of the inner–outer core transition. However, if the observed asymmetry in the density jump distribution is of a global character, the data presented support the translation model of the IC dynamics. This model implies IC crystallization in the Western Hemisphere and melting in the Eastern one, not vice versa, as suggested by another geodynamic model based on thermochemical convection in the outer core and the thermal balance of the core–mantle system.

  • Spivak A.A., Rybnov Y.S., Kharlamov V.A. Variations in Geophysical Fields during Hurricanes and Squalls
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2018, vol. 480, No. 2, p. 788 - 791

    Based on complex analysis of the results of instrumental observations during strong atmospheric disturbances, it is shown that hurricanes and squalls are accompanied not only by high wind velocities, but also by high-amplitude microbaric variations, variations in amplitudes of the microseismic background, and the vertical component of the electric field. It is established that 1–4 hours before the onset, squalls and hurricanes are characterized by increased amplitudes of microbaric variations in the range of periods of 2–6 min, as well as by low-frequency variations in the electric field and variations in the microseismic background, which together with the meteorological parameters can be considered as a complex prognostic criterion of an impending hurricane (squall).

  • Ruzhich V.V., Kocharyan G.G., Travin A.V., Savel'eva V.B., Ostapchuk A.A., Rasskazov S.V., Yasnygina T.A., Yudin D.S. Determination of the PT Conditions that Accompanied a Seismogenic Slip along a Deep Segment of the Marginal Suture of the Siberian Craton
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2018, vol. 481, No. 2, p. 1017 - 1020

    This paper reports data on the structure of the central zone of the seismogenic fault in the originally deep segments of the fault zone. The isotopic analyses have made it possible to estimate the absolute age of the ancient coseismic faults at 673 ± 5 Ma, which is indicative of seismic activation of deep faults in the studied segment of the marginal suture of the Siberian Craton in the Neoproterozoic.

  • Spivak A.A. Manifestation of Singlets of the Basic Spheroidal Mode of the Earth 0 S 2 in Geomagnetic Variations
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2018, vol. 481, No. 2, p. 1066 - 1069

    The results of instrumental observations have shown that the spectra of geomagnetic variations exhibit a quasi-harmonic component, the frequency of which is close to the basic spheroidal mode of the Earth 0S2. In periods 15 days long after three large earthquakes and in the absence of strong magnetic disturbances, the fine structure of this mode in geomagnetic variations is identified in the form of singlets. The frequencies of these singlets are similar to the theoretical values calculated using an ideal elastic isotropic model of the Earth of spherical symmetric form without its rotation.

  • Adushkin V.V., Kishkina S.B., Kulikov V.I., Pavlov D.N., Anisimov V.N., Saltykov N.V., Sergeev S.V., Spungin V.G. Monitoring Potentially Hazardous Areas at Korobkovo Deposit of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 53, No. 4, p. 605 - 613

    The article reports the results obtained in the trial of elements of the monitoring system for potentially hazardous areas at Korobkovo deposit of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. The system is based on the seismic and deformation measurements aimed to estimate and control shear stiffness of potentially hazardous faults. The fault shear stiffness is estimated through the analysis of parameters of seismic waves in the vicinity of a fault. The sources of seismic signals in the trial were explosions carried out at the neighbor surface and underground mines.

  • Kocharyan G.G., Zolotukhin S.R., Kalinin E.V., Panas'yan L.L., Spungin V.G. Stress–Strain State of Rock Mass in the Zone of Tectonic Fractures in the Korobkov Iron Ore Deposit
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 54, No. 1, p. 13 - 20

    The actual lithostatic stresses are calculated with regard to physical characteristics and structural features of rock mass. The results are compared with the in-situ observations. It is shown that vertical stresses naturally grow with depth though their values are very different along horizontal cross sections due to the complex structure of rock mass. On the average, the vertical stresses are close in values to the lithostatic stresses. The horizontal stresses measured by the borehole slotter method are many times higher than their calculated values, which is governed by the nonunform properties of rocks or is reflective of tectonic compression.

  • Tyupin V.N., Anisimov V.N. Effect of Geological and Geophysical Characteristics of Complex-Structure Ferruginous Quartzite Ore Bodies on Blasting and Processing Performance
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 54, No. 1, p. 48-52

    In terms of the complex-structure ferruginous quartzite ore body mining in the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, the authors validate the requirement to account for anisotropy of rocks with a view to improving performance of preparatory and blasting operations, stabilizing grain size composition, reducing production of oversizes, saving energy input of milling, enhancing useful component extraction into concentrate and decreasing losses with regard to the sound subsoil management conditions. The effect of the first to third scale anisotropy on the quality of blasting fragmentation of ferruginous quartzite is analyzed. The theoretical formulas to calculate radius of controlled fragmentation zone as function of geological and geophysical characteristics of rock mass are presented, and the practical results of blasting at open pit mines in the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly area are described.

  • Adushkin V.V., Chen B.B., Popel S.I., Dubinskii A.Y., Weidler P.G., Friedrich F. Experimental Study of Small-Scale Mineral Particles in the Atmosphere of Central Asia
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2018, vol. 54, No. 2, p. 330-335

    An experimental study of small-scale mineral particles in the atmosphere over Kyrgyzstan is carried out. It is shown that the substance of the studied particles corresponds to quartz-enriched minerals, feldspars, layered silicates, minerals containing lime carbonate, etc. Overall, there is a definite correspondence between the mineral particle compositions in the atmosphere of Kyrgyzstan and in the other regions of Central Asia. The constructed size-distribution functions of the particles agree with the results of studying the dust aerosol properties in the deserts of Central Asia obtained in the southwestern part of Tajikistan in 1989.

  • Adushkin V.V., Spivak A.A., Kharlamov V.A. Manifestation of the Lunar–Solar Tide and Free Oscillations of the Earth in the Variations of the Magnetic Field
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2018, vol. 54, No. 6, p. 859-871

    The results of processing and analyzing the instrumental observations of the Earth’s magnetic field at the Geophysical Observatory Mikhnevo of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGD RAS) for 2010–2015 are presented. Quasi-harmonic components with the periods close to the lunar–solar tidal waves are revealed in the spectra of geomagnetic variations over a period of 0.4 to 30 days. The elliptical S1 tidal wave which is detected in the geomagnetic variations has modulations with periods of 1/3, 1/2, and 1 year. The spectra of the geomagnetic variations contain peaks corresponding to the free oscillations of the Earth. The analysis of the time series of the magnetic field for the period of the strong earthquakes in the absence of geomagnetic disturbances revealed the fine structure of the Earth’s fundamental spheroidal mode 0S2, which splits into five singlets. The established features of the spectrum of geomagnetic variations are helping the development of the new method for studying the deep structure of the Earth and the properties of the inner geospheres for estimating the viscosity of the Earth’s outer core and dynamics of the current systems in the outer (liquid) core, as well as for exploring, with the use of empirical data, the general regularities governing the regimes of energy exchange processes in the geospheres.

  • Goev A.G., Kosarev G.L., Riznichenko O.Y., Sanina I.A. Velocity Model of Western Volgo-Uralia from Receiver Functions
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2018, vol. 54, No. 6, p. 949 - 963

    The results of studying the deep structure of the Earth’s crust and upper mantle in the central part of the Russian platform from receiver functions are presented. The records of teleseismic waves by the Monakovo small-aperture seismic array in the region of the northwestern slope of the Tokmovskii Arch of the Volga–Kama anteclise are used. The modification of the P-receiver function method (Vinnik, 1977) suggested in (Sanina et al., 2014) for analyzing the receiver functions in the regions with a complexly structured upper part of the section and the presence of a thick sedimentary cover is applied. The method is based on separating the high- and low-frequency components of the seismic record and successive reconstruction of the V-s velocity section in the upper part of the crust, which is performed first and, next, the entire deep section of the crust and the mantle down to a depth of ~300 km. The positions of the seismic conversion boundaries in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Monakovo array are determined. The upper mantle velocity section constructed based on the observations at the Mikhnevo array (Sanina et al., 2014) is compared with the world data on the ancient Precambrian platform.

  • Kocharyan G.G., Ostapchuk A.A., Pavlov D.V., Budkov A.M. On the Prospect of Detecting the Process of Earthquake Preparation in the Spectrum of Seismic Noise: A Laboratory Experiment
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2018, vol. 54, No. 6, p. 914 - 925

    The results of laboratory experiments aimed at studying the pattern of the transition process of a model fault into a metastable state are presented. The experiments are conducted on a slider model installed onto a long granite base wherein vibrations are excited. The idea of the experiments is that the mechanical properties of the fault change under the transition into the metastable state. These changes can be detected by the detailed examination of the parameters of microseismic noise. The conducted experiments show that, despite the low Q-factor of the block–fault mechanical system, the spectrum of the recorded oscillations definitely contains the harmonic components corresponding to the eigenmodes of this system. In the model with the interblock contact filled with quartz sand, the fundamental mode of the free oscillations alters most noticeably in the frequency band 1000–1200 Hz, where the clear effect of the spectral peak’s migration towards lower frequencies is observed as the contact approaches the moment of dynamic failure, and the approximately initial value is recovered after the sliding stops. The revealed effect gives hope that the changes in the stress–strain state of the fault zone at the final stage of earthquake preparation can be detected by analyzing the parameters of low-frequency seismic noise. The segment of the record during and after the passage of surface waves from remote earthquakes is perhaps amongst the most favorable for determining the characteristic values of the region under study. These oscillations with a period of a few dozen seconds have significant amplitudes and durations, which promotes the excitation of the resonant vibrations of the blocks.

  • Turuntaev S.B., Riga V.Yu. Rate-state based simulation of laboratory and natural induced seismicity
    Society of Exploration Geophysicists International Exposition and Annual Meeting, 2018 , p. 5002-5006

    Several variants of rate-state equations were considered in application to description of laboratory data on block sliding under normal and shear stresses. Both acoustic emission and stick-slip motion of the block were registered and considered as an analog of ordinary and slow earthquakes. Various types of fluids were added to the filler between the moving and stationary blocks. Obtained results on the block sliding were compared with numerical simulations which were conducted using several variants of the rate-state equations, and the best matching model was chosen for further study. With the help of that model, the seismic activity induced by fluid injection during Basel project was simulated. It was shown, that some long-term aftereffects of the fluid injection can be explained by specific value of the interblock stiffness related to the surround rock stiffness.

  • Oparin V.N., Adushkin V.V., Kiryaeva T.A., Potapov V.P., Cherepov A.A., Tyukhrin V.G., Glumov A.V. Effect of Pendulum Waves from Earthquakes on Gas-Dynamic Behavior of Coal Seams in Kuzbass
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 54, No. 1, p. 1-12

    In the framework of the theory of interaction between nonlinear geomechanical and physicochemical processes in coal seams under mining and based on the piston mechanism of gas dynamic processes, it has experimentally been proved that nonlinear quasi-metric elastic pendulum waves from natural and induced earthquakes have influence on gas-dynamics in mines in Kuzbass. The objects selected to identify the interrelationship were the large earthquakes occurred in Kuzbass on November 9, 2016 (magnitudes 2.7 and 3.7) and the records of the quake-induced gas dynamic activity in the Alarda and Osinniki mines.

  • Kocharyan G.G., Budkov A.M., Kishkina S.B. Initiation of Tectonic Earthquakes during Underground Mining
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 54, No. 4, p. 561 - 568

    The influence of underground mine workings arranged nearby faults on the initiation of large seismic event is considered. Numerical modeling proves that amount of underground mine workings affects actual stiffness of rocks and initiates dynamic movements accompanied by intensive seismic radiation. As rock mass quality worsens, the effective shear modulus drops. The calculations show that the effective shear modulus lowers by 20% for the stopes on the same level, decreases 1.5 times in case of the stopes arranged on two levels and nearly halves for three levels. Such reduction in the actual shear stiffness of rock mass may be critical in terms of initiation of dynamic shift along a fault.

  • Kocharyan G.G., Kishkina S.B. Initiation of Tectonic Earthquakes Caused by Surface Mining
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 54, No. 5, p. 744 - 750

    The influence of surface mining on the initiation of large seismic event is considered. The conditions of shearing-type dynamic events are described. A surface mine with the similar parameters as the Bachatsky open pit mine in Kuzbass is adduced as an example for quantifying the mining-induced change in the stress state in the plane of a future rupture as a result of an induced tectonic earthquake nearby a fault plane is quantified. The calculations are performed for different geometrical parameters of the fault zone: the changes are more observable in the zones of gently dipping thrust faulting and less appreciable in the area of steep normal faulting and strike-slip. In case of large surface mines, the zone of positive change in the Coulomb stresses higher than several tenths mega pascals has a considerable dimension and an area markedly larger than the area of nucleation zone of earthquakes of the magnitude M ≤ 6. In such conditions, even a small variability at the level of first percentage points of the natural stresses can be sufficient for the initiation of seismicity-generating shearing along the high-stress faults. It is found that, as against underground mining, the surface mining activities have no influence on localization of large earthquake sources but can draw the event nearer.

  • Kocharyan G.G.,Ostapchuk A.A.,Pavlov D.V.,Markov V.K. The effects of weak dynamic pulses on the slip dynamics of a laboratory fault
    Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 2018, vol. 108, No. 5, p. 2983 - 2992

    Investigated are the regularities of fault slip under weak impulsive disturbances in laboratory experiments. The fault was simulated by an interface between two granite blocks loaded with normal and shear stresses, and the impulsive disturbances were excited by impacts of steel balls. We found that the passage of an elastic wave does not produce any residual displacement in the absence of shear load. But the process of inelastic fault deformation manifests quite vividly even under a slight constant shear stress. The sign of residual deformation does not depend on the direction of pulse propagation, but it does coincide with the direction of the applied shear load. Depending on the stress–strain state of the fault and the parameters of the impact, there are two scenarios of fault evolution: (1) production of residual deformations with decaying amplitudes under repeated cycles or (2) initiation of slow deformation process and accumulation of displacements up to the occurrence of slip instability. In the case of a continuously increased shear load, the effects of weak periodic impacts essentially depend on the initial slip behavior. The weakest effect is observed in the case of high-amplitude stick-slip. In contrast, in the case of slow, irregular quasi-dynamic slip, tapping leads to an almost complete transformation of the potential energy of deformation into aseismic creep. Thus, a short dynamic disturbance propagating within a stressed blocky medium can trigger a slow deformation process whose contribution to the cumulative deformation may be quite appreciable. Because postdynamic movements can contribute substantially, a delay in the manifestation of dynamic events with respect to the moment of the initial disturbance may be observed. In turn, periodic dynamic disturbances of the stress–strain state can essentially change the mode of background seismicity and the proportion of radiation efficiency of events.

  • Jenniskens P., Popova O. Comets in the path of earth
    Elements, 2018, vol. 14, No. 2, p. 107-112

    Earth's atmosphere offers little protection against comet impacts, because many comets are bigger than 1 km. Fewer comets hit Earth than asteroids of the same size, except perhaps for sizes larger than 10 km. Comets release copious amounts of solid debris called meteoroids, and these meteoroids disperse to form meteoroid streams, some of which cause meteor showers on Earth. Recent meteor shower observations reveal the presence of potentially dangerous parent comets and trace their dynamical evolution. In addition, some showers leave a signature of "cosmic dust" in our atmosphere.

  • Ryakhovskiy I., Lyakhov A., Gavrilov B., Poklad Y., Bekker S., Kozlov S., Korsunskaya Y. Numerical Simulation of European VLF Network Response to X-Class Solar Flare in September 2017
    URSI Atlantic Radio Science Meeting, 2018 , p. 8471598

    We present the experimental evidence for European VLF network data on the response of the lower ionosphere and frequency-dependent VLF data under the consequent X-class solar flares 06 September and 10 September 2017. The stations under analysis include European AWESOM monitors, which are distributed over all Europe. Data from geophysical observatory 'Mikhnevo' (MKH) of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics (54.57N, 37.46E) covers frequency range from 1Hz to 100 kHz, thus allowing the monitoring of all VLF/LF transmitters as well as Schumann resonance. The monitoring is evaluated both in magnetic field channel by METRONIX MFS07 magnetometer (3 components) and in electric field channel by RhodeSchwarz ESCI receiver (vertical electric field).

  • Kabychenko N.V., Besedina A.N., Volosov S.G., Korolev S.A., Kocharyan G.G. Short-Period Seismometers in Seismology
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2018, vol. 54, No. 1, p. 28-42

    This paper reviews the methods of correcting the frequency response of short-period seismometers and geophones, i.e., the multiplication of the transfer sensor functions by the transfer function of the second-order correction filter and the provision of a considerable attenuation in the oscillating system (h = 5-10) followed by correcting the frequency response with the first-order filter. The correction device circuit developed by the authors for expanding the frequency range of the GS-20DX geophone has been described. The proposed method has been proved to be effective according to the laboratory tests of the geophone with the frequency response correction according to this circuit.

  • Kitov I.O., Sanina I.A., Sergeev S.S., Nesterkina M.A., Konstantinovskaya N.L. Detection, Estimation of Magnitude, and Relative Location of Weak Aftershocks Using Waveform Cross-Correlation: The Earthquake of August 7, 2016, in the Town of Mariupol
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2018, vol. 54, No. 2, p. 158-174

    The study of the stress-strain state of a medium in seismically quiet areas is difficult because of the absence of strong events. Under such circumstances, each earthquake, even relatively weak, is of high importance. In this case, all possible information on tectonic stresses and their dynamics, e.g., information on time, location, and magnitude of aftershocks, should be obtained from available seismic data. The earthquake near the town of Mariupol which occurred on August 7, 2016, had a body wave magnitude of 4.5-4.9 from the data of the different seismological centers. We detected 12 aftershocks that occurred within 5 days after the main shock using two seismic arrays (AKASG and BRTR) and one three-component station (KBZ) of the International Monitoring System, as well as two array stations of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences. For six aftershocks, signals were found at three or more stations. The other aftershocks were detected from the data at two out of three nearest stations. Signal detection and association with aftershocks of the main shock, as well as estimation of magnitude and relative location of the found aftershocks, were carried out using the method of waveform cross-correlation (WFCC). The signals from the main shock that acted as the only master event (ME) for the WFCC method were used as waveform templates. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to determine the exact onset time of regular seismic waves from aftershocks, we used waveform templates of different length, from 10 to 180 s depending on the wave type and distance to the station, as well as band filtering in narrow frequency bands. The highest sensitivity of the detector and accuracy of the P-wave onset time estimates were reached when a waveform template included all regular waves from P to L (g) . Association of signals with aftershocks was based on back projection of signal arrival times to origin times using the travel time from a master event to the station, which was measured with a very low error, being equal to almost half of the digitization step length. To develop a seismic event hypothesis, the origin times at two or more stations should be spaced within a 2-s interval.

  • Nesterkina M.A., Sergeev S.I., Sanina I.A., Konstantinovskaya N.L., Konstantinovskaya N.L., Danilova T.V., Sergeev K.S. Identification of Local Seismic Events Using the Mikhnevo Seismic Array
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2018, vol. 54, No. 4, p. 408-416

    A large number of events with sources in the immediate vicinity of an array are usually detected during seismological observations with seismic arrays. These events should be detected and correctly interpreted during processing of seismic array records in order to avoid clogging up the event catalog. This problem can be solved by classifying records of local events by genetic features and creating a databank with the most representative samples. The present paper considers local events recorded using a unique scientific setup, the Mikhnevo small aperture seismic array. Epicenters of local seismic events are located less than 5 km from the center of the array. Seismic responses of acoustic shock waves are also examined. Seismic events caused by anthropogenic sources are identified and classified using cluster, cross-correlation, and wavelet analysis. Events accompanied only by the arrival of surface waves, as well as events represented by body, surface, and acoustic waves, are identified. Shock wave events are classified as a separate category. A small group of supposedly natural weak events is also found. As a result, a databank of waveforms of local seismic events for the Mikhnevo seismic array is established. In the future, this will make it possible to automate their identification when investigating the seismicity of the East European Platform.

  • Bashilov I.P., Volosov S.G., Korolev S.A., Merkulov V.A., Ovchinnikov V.M. A Family of Seismometers with Capacitive Transducers
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2018, vol. 54, No. 5, p. 543-550

    A family of seismometers has been developed with capacitive transducers that convert the relative displacement between the inertial mass and the base of the instrument into an electric signal. These high-sensitivity seismometers have a unified electronic circuit; they can be rather easily manufactured, installed, and calibrated, which makes mass production of these instruments look promising. To assess the possibility of using these seismometers as substitutes for imported counterparts, a comparative analysis was carried out to study the performance of a portable short-period SM-3E broadband digital seismometer and imported seismometers of the same type. Seismic recordings of these instruments were statistically analyzed in the time and frequency domains.

  • Bashilov I.P., Volosov S.G., Merkulov V.A., Rybakov N.P., Sukonkin S.Ya., Chervinchuk S.Y. Development and Full-Scale Testing of Prototypes of Tsdss-M and MDM Digital Seafloor Seismic Stations Intended for Security Systems
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2018, vol. 54, No. 6, p. 619-625

    The paper addresses experiments to assess whether seismic systems can be used for autonomous border surveillance on land and sea. Seismic systems as an integral part of border surveillance systems, especially maritime ones, should comply with strict performance requirements. The first-priority problem was to prepare appropriate domestic equipment and an experimental technique for seismic surveying on land and sea. When this problem was formulated, there was no suitable domestic broadband equipment. Fundamentally new technical solutions were employed to create prototypes of seismic modules of the SM-5, SM-6, and SM-3M types. On their basis, one- and three-component short-period and broadband of seismic sensor prototypes were developed, including the SM-5M, SM-6, TS-5, TS-6MSh, etc., which were used to create a prototype for a digital deep seafloor seismic station (TsDSS-M). Also, for transition zones, a seafloor seismic station was developed and tested, which is based on molecular electronic sensors that have achieved significant progress recently. The paper describes the prototypes of the TsDSS-M digital seafloor seismic station and MDM bottom seismic module for transition zones, both based on electrodynamic and molecular electronic sensors. The prototypes were tested on Lake Seliger. Shallow-water tests demonstrated the reliability and high performance of the prototypes; the desired characteristics proved to be appropriate. Importantly, TS-5 seismic modules are now manufactured at an industrial scale; this has solved the problem of import substitution in this area.

  • Trimonova M.A., Zenchenko E.V., Zenchenko P.E., Turuntaev S.B., Baryshnikov N.A. Determination of the fracture opening pressure: Experiment vs. Theory
    Conference on Oil and Gas Geological Exploration and Development, Geomodel 2018, 2018 , p. 1

    In this paper, we compare the fracture opening pressure in the laboratory experiment and in the theory. The opening pressure knowledge is necessary not only for hydraulic fracturing, but also to estimate the stability of the wellbore. In addition, this value determines the possible formation of small fractures in the rock, where the pore pressure exceeds the fracture opening pressure. Also, the knowledge of this value is necessary for calculating the maximum horizontal stress, the finding of which is a nontrivial task. Our study showed that the experimental value of the fracture opening pressure differs from the theoretical one by several times.

  • Ivanchenko G., Gorbunova E., Kosarev G., Riznichenko O., Goev A. Lithospheric architecture of European craton
    International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, 2018, vol. 18, No. 1, p. 205-212

    The lithospheric mantle of the central part of the East European Craton has not been studied in detail. The main goal of the research is to develop a model of the deep structure of this region. Recently new vertical velocity sections were constructed to a depth of 300 km, obtained by the receiver function method, along the sublatitudinal profile Obninsk-Nizhny Novgorod. The position of the main boundary of the crustmantle is reconsidered from the velocity sections. Velocity differentiation is found within the upper mantle, which is associated with a change in geophysical and geochemical properties. Suggested model is aimed at analyzing the relationship between the structure of the lithospheric mantle and the structures of the earth's crust, which must be carried out at different hierarchical levels. Structurally, the region in question is represented by Archean microcontinents-the Volga-Ural and Sarmatia and the connecting zone of the Proterozoic folding. Under the earth's crust, the stable areas of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle-the domains up to 100 km in size, which are characterized by definite geological, geochemical and geophysical properties-stand out in the upper mantle. Under Archean microcontinents forming East European Craton, agglomeration of domains forming pristine archean is traced. The position of the lower boundary of the domains is determined by the age of their formation. Under Archean microcontinents-Volga-Ural, Sarmatia, the bottom of the sole is presumably traced at depths of up to 400 km, under Proterozoic folding-up to 250 km. In some areas, melting of the lower part of the domains and along its boundaries is possible, controlled in some cases by the presence of large fault zones.

  • Riznichenko O., Nesterkina M., Konstantinovskaya N., Volosov S., Gorbunova E. An estimation of the effective attenuation for p waves applied to the central part of the east european craton based on the quarry blasts data
    International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Managemen, 2018, vol. 18, No. 1, p. 675-682

    The central part of the East European craton (EEC) is the site of extensive mining activity. The small aperture array “Mikhnevo” (MHVAR) monitors the weak seismic events in the distance range about 500 km. The most of them are identified as industrial explosions using the S/P amplitude ratio, day-time distribution criteria, spectral content, recurrence and clustering of events. The detailed analysis of waveform variations allows monitoring of the change in the position of the explosion as well as the subtle changes in the technology of the blasting. Basing on array data and regular seismic measurements in the vicinity of quarries we estimate the effective attenuation for P waves. Experimental calibration curves for industrial explosions show strong variations with azimuth. The observed ground velocity is equivalent to the intensity I=1.5-2 near the quarries with the energy of explosions of the order 5·108 J/year, and to the intensity of I=3, if the energy is of the order 5·1010 J/year. Presumable maximum impact of the industrial explosions is estimated in case of simultaneous activity on all the sites. The central part of the EEC is vulnerable to seismic effects from minor quarry blasts similar to the area near big mining sites.

  • Sergeev S., Ivanchenko D.G., Sergeev K., Sanina I., Korolev S. Adaptive selection of the channels of small aperture seismic arrays for cross-correlation processing
    International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, 2018, vol. 18, No. 1, p. 707-714

    The development of methods for automatic preprocessing of observational data of small-aperture seismic arrays that precede the detection and identification of seismic events by the method of waveform cross-correlation is considered. Preprocessing is based on adaptive channel selection. The methods developed by us provide for the calculation of the quality metrics of the seismic channel by means of spectral and amplitude analysis of records. The selection of channels is based on the correspondence of the quality of records to predetermined criteria. As a result of the selection, a list of records admitted to the correlation processing is formed. This list can contain fewer channels than there is in the initial records of the small-aperture seismic group. The final result of the selection of channels is to increase the average for the group of coefficients of cross-correlation of the samples with the investigated records in comparison with the situation when all available records are “allowed” to processing. As a result of applying the described methods to the records of the small aperture array “Mikhnevo” (MHVAR) of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, an increase in the average value of the cross-correlation coefficients reached 14%.

  • Ivanchenko G., Kishkina S. Seismoteconic researches of the area of the rostov nuclear power plant
    International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, 2018, vol. 18, No. 1, p. 981-988

    The geodynamic situation in the region of the “Rostov NPP”(next NPP) location is considered in terms of assessing the neotectonic activity of the territory and its relationship to seismicity. The authors used their own and published data, as well as the results of field seismic observations conducted by the small aperture array of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics Russian Academy of Sciences in 2016. The estimation of vertical Pliocene-Quaternary deformations by a method of stratigraphic and geomorphic reference surfaces is used. The absence of newly formed PlioceneQuaternary faults disturbances was noted, but the importance of the reactivation of ancient structures, including those controlling the position of the Karpinsky Ridge, was also noted.

  • Riabova S. Calculation of magnetotelluric functions and their variations due to changes in the groundwater level
    International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, 2018, vol. 18, No. 2, p. 119-126

    Electromagnetic (EM) induction technique is one of the most important geophysical techniques in understanding the subsurface structure. The theory of magnetotelluric (MT) method, the main branch of the EM technique, was introduced during 50’s by Tickonov and Cagniard with the natural variation of electromagnetic fields, as its source. We will present the results of a study focused on the processing and modeling of magnetotelluric (MT) data in watered area located in the Moscow Region (Geophysical observatory "Mikhnevo" of Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Science). Issues related to the robust processing, and modeling of the data will be addressed. Moreover, we investigate relationship between seasonal changes in regime of groundwater level in conditions of the observatory "Mikhnevo" and variations of calculated magnetic tipper. We compare values of magnetic tipper, which is calculated on basis of numerical model of the magnetic tipper response associated with the change in the weight of the water-saturated layer, and magnetic tipper calculated from the components of the magnetic field on the Earth's surface.

  • Kocharyan G.G., Batukhtin I.V. Laboratory studies of slip along faults as a physical basis for a new approach to short‐term earthquake prediction
    GEODYNAMICS & TECTONOPHYSICS, 2018, vol. 9, No. 3, p. 671-691

    The physical effects that may prove useful for developing a new approach to short‐term earthquake prediction have been studied in laboratory conditions. In seismology and earthquake foci mechanics, one of the major challenges is searching for indicators of an upcoming seismic event and attempting to reliably record such indicators by available instruments. In this regard, the best result of the laboratory studies of dynamic slip along faults would be the identification of specific macroscopic parameters controlling the deformation process, which are measurable in field. Dynamic stiffness of a fault zone seems to be an appropriate parameter. The recent laboratory experiments have shown that the value of this parameter predetermines the slip mode along the fault (unstable slip, creep, tremor, etc.), and a radical decrease in shear stiffness takes place as the fault zone reaches the metastable state. The effect discovered in the laboratory conditions gives grounds to suggest that changes in the stress‐strain state of the fault zone at the final stage of earthquake preparation are detectable from the parameters of microseismic noise in the low-frequency range. Apparently, the noise records during and after the arrival of surface waves from distant earthquakes can provide the best opportunity for determining the parameters characterizing the study area. The wave oscillations with a period of a few dozen seconds have significant amplitudes and duration, which contributes to the excitation of resonance oscillations of the blocks. There are problems requiring additional laboratory experiments: estimating the size of a fault, which predetermines regularities in decreasing of the own frequency of the block‐fault system; determining the ratio of the mechanical parameters of the fault in the nucleation zone and on the periphery of the future rupture, etc. Having analyzed the results of experimental studies carried out by other researchers, we conclude that laboratory experiments under normal conditions and low pressures can successfully address a number of fundamental issues on the way to creating a new approach to short‐term earthquake prediction. Increasing pressure and temperature to values characteristic of seismogenic depths does not lead to the occurrence of any fundamentally new features in the behavior of the block‐fault system at the stage when dynamic slip is being prepared. During slip, friction reduces due to melting, physical and chemical transformations at the micro‐ and nanoscales and other processes on the slipping surface, but these effects play no role at the stage when dynamic rock failure and the onset of slip are being prepared.

  • Ruzhich V.V., Kocharyan G.G., Savelieva V.B., Travin A.V. On the structure and formation of earthquake sources in the faults located in the subsurface and deep levels of the crust. Part II. Deep level
    GEODYNAMICS & TECTONOPHYSICS, 2018, vol. 9, No. 3, p. 1039-1061

    In the part 2 of the study [Ruzhich, Kocharyan, 2017], we aimed at identifying the elements of paleoearthquake sources in the crust, which formed at the hypocentral depths in the exhumed Primorsky segment of the ancient collisional suture. The study area covered the southeastern margin of the Siberian craton (Pribaikalie, East Siberia). Slickensides, pseudo‐tachyllite (basaltic glass) and other petrological evidence of intensive tectonic movements were sampled. The structure of the deep segments of the collisional suture were reconstructed from on the data on coseismic ruptures and faults, and the PT parameters were estimated. In the past decades, similar research problems were actively investigated (e.g. [Sibson, 1973; Byerlee, 1978; Morrow et al., 1992; Hodges, 2004; Kirkpatrick et al., 2012]). In Russia, the interest in studying geological and geophysical features of the deeply denuded areas in ancient faults is still limited [Sherman, 1977; Ruzhich, 1989, 1992, 1997; Savel'eva et al., 2003; Ruzhich et al., 2015; Kocharyan, 2016]. The deeply denuded Primorsky segment of the collisional suture of the Siberian Craton underwent the geological evolution of a billion years. In the analysis, we used additional geological data from the petrology studies of the Main Sayan fault zone and other exhumed fault segments, including the seismogenerating faults in the Mongolia-Baikal region [Zamaraev, Ruzhich, 1978; Zamaraev et al., 1979; Ruzhich et al., 2009]. From the PT conditions for the occurrence of the slickensides, pseudo‐tachylyte, and the Primorsky segment structure, the 40Ar/39Ar method estimated the age of the slickensides containing tourmaline at 673±4.8 Ma, which may correspond to the Neoproterozoic stage of the breakdown of the megacontinent Rodinia. Another dating, 415.4±4.1 Ma, obtained for the muscovite sample from a decompressional rupture, refers to the Early Paleozoic stage in the development of the collisional suture, when accretion of the Siberian Craton and the Olkhon terrain took place [Donskaya et al., 2003; Fedorovsky et al., 2010]. Based on these ages and other available petrological data, the depths of the heterochronous systems of coseismic ruptures were estimated: 18 km in the Neoproterozoic, and 12 km in the Middle Paleozoic stage of the seismotec-tonic evolution of the crust in Pribaikalie. The deep paleoseismological settings need to be further investigated in order to more thoroughly clarify the physical and chemical conditions that contributed to the occurrence of the ancient and recent sources of strong earthquakes in the deep segments of faults in the crust. Such information is a prerequisite for further progress towards resolving the problems of securing seismic safety in various regions.

  • Efremov V.V., Popova O.P., Glazachev D.O., Kartashova A.P. DETERMINATION OF THE METEOR PARTICLES PROPERTIES FROM OBSERVATIONAL DATA
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 6026-6026

  • Kartashova A.P., Popova O.P., Glazachev D.O., Jenniskens P., Podbnaya E.D. EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS AND MODELING RESULTS FOR CHELYABINSK AIRBURST
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 6169-6169

  • Kuzmicheva M.Yu. FEATURES OF CRATER MAGNETIC ANOMALIES: VIEW FROM NUMERICAL MODELING
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 6200-6200

  • Naroenkov S., Glazachev D., Kartashova A., Popova O. THE CONSTRUCTOR OF ORBITS FOR THE IMPACT EFFECT CALCULATOR
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 6317-6317

  • Popova, O., Rybnov, Yu., Kharlamov V., Ghica D., Borovicka J. MULTI-TECHNIQUE REGISTRATION OF ROMANIAN SUPERBOLIDE
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 6233-6233

  • Shuvalov V.V., Khazins V.M., Svetsov V.V. ESTIMATION OF SEISMIC EFFICIENCY OF IMPACTS OF COSMIC OBJECTS BY METHODS OF NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 6068-6068

  • Svetsov V.V., Shuvalov V.V., Shuvalov V.V., Artemieva N.A., Khazins V.M., Popova O.P., Glazachev O., Podobnaya E.D. COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS EFFECTS OF IMPACTS OF COSMIC OBJECTS
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 6145-6145

  • Zhu M.-H., Artemieva N., Morbidelli A., Wuennemann K., Becker H. THE MOON'S IMPACT HISTORY: RECONSTRUCTION BASED ON HIGHLY SIDEROPHILE ELEMENTS
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2018, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 6102-6102

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

  • ГОРБУНОВА Э.М. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ПОСТВЗРЫВНЫХ ДЕФОРМАЦИЙ ДНЕВНОЙ ПОВЕРХНОСТИ
    ГЕОЭКОЛОГИЯ. ИНЖЕНЕРНАЯ ГЕОЛОГИЯ, ГИДРОГЕОЛОГИЯ, ГЕОКРИОЛОГИЯ, 2018 , No. 5, p. 40-52

    Поствзрывные деформации дневной поверхности выделены на ряде участков площадки Балапан Семипалатинского испытательного полигона по результатам полевых работ – геоморфологического обследования и геодезического нивелирования по профилям. Поверхностная техногенная зональность является косвенным отражением изменения состояния геологической среды. Массовая скорость движения пород выбрана в качестве основного критерия для сравнения изменений относительных отметок дневной поверхности в результате произведенных взрывов и при землетрясениях. Полученные значения смещения и массовой скорости движения пород при взрывах сопоставлены с опубликованными данными по землетрясениям.

  • BEKKER S.Z. ANALYSIS OF ELECTRON DENSITY CALCULATIONS USING DETERMINISTIC-PROBABILISTIC MODEL OF THE IONOSPHERIC D-REGION
    SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS, 2018, vol. 4, No. 3, p. 67-75

    The work is devoted to the development of a fundamentally new way of modeling the ionospheric D-region - deterministic-probabilistic. The results of N e calculations using this technique are analyzed. Research of this kind is of fundamental importance, related to the rejection of a purely deterministic description of a continuously changing environment such as the ionosphere. In this work, the electron density is calculated using a five-component system of ionization-recombination cycle equations. Probability density functions (PDFs) of input parameters of the model are used to solve the system. The most important sources of the D-region ionization are taken into account to calculate PDFs of the ionization rate. The necessary number of iterations is determined by the convergence of PDFs of the electron density from 50 km to 85 km at midlatitudes under different heliogeophysical conditions. Theoretical N e PDFs have been shown to be in good agreement with two experimental databases on electron density, especially at large D-region heights. The next important stage of modeling is the thorough verification of N e PDFs from experimental radiophysical data on VLF-LF propagation.

  • Варыпаев А.В., Санина И.А., Чулков А.Б., Кушнир А.Ф. ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ РОБАСТНЫХ ФАЗОВЫХ АЛГОРИТМОВ ДЛЯ ВЫЯВЛЕНИЯ СЕЙСМИЧЕСКОЙ ЭМИССИИ В РАЙОНЕ ПРОВЕДЕНИЯ ВЗРЫВНЫХ РАБОТ В ШАХТАХ
    СЕЙСМИЧЕСКИЕ ПРИБОРЫ, 2018, vol. 54, No. 2, p. 33-48

    Разработаны алгоритмы многоканальной обработки записей сейсмических групп, позволяющие детектировать сигналы слабых сейсмических событий, наблюдаемых на фоне естественных сейсмических помех. В основе алгоритма детектирования сигналов слабых сейсмических событий лежит оценка меры когерентности продольных волн (P-волн), регистрируемых малоапертурными группами. Преимущество такого алгоритма перед известным одноканальным детектором STA/LTA заключается в возможности обнаруживать временные интервалы P-волн с отношением сигнал/помеха (SNR), меньшим единицы. По временным интервалам записей группы, где фиксируются превышающие определённый порог значения меры когерентности, оценивается вектор кажущейся медленности с помощью робастного к помехам фазового алгоритма бимформинга [Zhang et al., 2008; Kushnir, Varypaev, 2017]. Разработанная методика многоканальной обработки была апробирована на реальных сейсмических записях малоапертурной группы, установленной в районе Курской магнитной аномалии, непосредственно вблизи горных выработок по добыче железной руды. В течение 20 ч сейсмических записей были обнаружены сигналы как сильных (подземные промышленные взрывы), так и слабых сейсмических событий. В некоторых случаях удалось показать, что сейсмические события имеют сложный механизм очага. С помощью фильтра Кейпона [Capon, 1969] установлена схожесть (с точностью до знака вступления) P-волн слабых сейсмических событий, длительность которых не превышает 0.2 с, а временная форма подобна известной функции импульса Рикера [Bording, 1996].

  • НЕСТЕРКИНА М.А., КУЛИКОВ В.И., КОНСТАНТИНОВСКАЯ Н.Л., САНИНА И.А., РИЗНИЧЕНКО О.Ю. ОЦЕНКА УРОВНЯ СЕЙСМИЧЕСКОГО ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННЫХ ВЗРЫВОВ В ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ ЧАСТИ ВОСТОЧНО-ЕВРОПЕЙСКОЙ ПЛАТФОРМЫ
    СЕЙСМИЧЕСКИЕ ПРИБОРЫ, 2018, vol. 54, No. 2, p. 49-65

    На основе экспериментальных данных сейсмических наблюдений на профиле от Новогуровского известнякового карьера до малоапертурной сейсмической группы “Михнево” получены оценки коэффициентов затухания продольных и поперечных волн в верхней части коры центрального региона Восточно-Европейской платформы. В предположении об однородности диссипативных свойств земной коры построена карта изолиний распространения сейсмической энергии от карьерных взрывов в центральной части Восточно-Европейской платформы, содержащая сведения об исторических и современных землетрясениях. Проведено сопоставление пространственного распределения сейсмического воздействия промышленных взрывов с элементами зон тектонических нарушений по данным линеаментного анализа. Карта сопровождается оценкой интенсивности взрывных работ по данным за 2013-2017 гг.

Прочие публикации

  • Dubinya N., Trimonova, M., Tyurin A., Golovin Y., Zenchenko E., Samodurov A., Turuntaev S., I. Fokin Experimental and Theoretical Study of Fracture Toughness Effect on Hydraulic Fracture's Geometry
    SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 2018 , p. 1

    The article is devoted to mathematical and physical modeling of the process of hydraulic fracture initiation and propagation in the material with known physical-mechanical properties. Fracture toughness was the main focus of the research as it is a parameter characterizing the rock's ability to resist fracturing process. This parameter alongside with rock elastic properties and pumping conditions is one of the governing parameters while considering the fracture propagation in terms of mechanics of brittle fracture. The study is aimed at understanding the impact of fracture toughness on geometric properties of a fracture by means of numerical modeling of laboratory experiments of hydraulic fracture propagation in a model material. The strength properties including fracture toughness of the used model material have been studied using the indentation methods. The difference between experimentally observed and numerically calculated (keeping in mind the estimated strength properties) fracture geometry is studied in the paper and the possible reasons for this difference are discussed.

  • V. Adushkin, O. Aksenov, S.Veniaminov, S. Kozlov Challenging Aspects in Evaluating the Potential Danger of Space Objects Breakups and Collisions for Space Flights
    Advances in Astrophysics, 2018, vol. 3, No. 2, p. 83-90

    The increasing near-Earth space (NES) exploration with its technogeneous contamination, and the resulting growth of space objects breakups risk for space flights makes more urgent the problem of estimating this danger, an adequate and accurate estimate being very important. In practice, given the complexity of obtaining the accurate estimates of this characteristic because of the large uncertainty in the initial data, it is a common practice simplifying the calculations, neglecting a set of factors, included some essential ones. In this work, some challenging aspects in evaluating and using the estimates of potential danger of space objects breakups and possible ways of improving these estimates are discussed.

  • Куликов В.И СЕЙСМОВЗРЫВНОЕ ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЕ ПОДЗЕМНЫХ БВР НА НАСЕЛЕНИЕ И ЗАСТРОЙКУ РЕГИОНА ШАХТ
    НАУЧНЫЕ ОСНОВЫ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ ГОРНЫХ РАБОТ, 2018 , p. 154-160

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в базу реферативной информации Web of Science, Scopus

  • Artemieva, N.A., Shuvalov, V.V., Svetssov, V.V. Аirbursts: we will shock you!
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE , 2017, vol. 52 , p. с. A11.

    We model ground effects produced by airbursts for a wide range of impact scenarios and suggest simple interpolations which may be used to predict impact hazard.

  • Bronikowska M., Artemieva N.A., Hofmann B.A. Reconstruction of the Twannberg meteorite fall
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2017, vol. 52 , p. с. A35

    We model the Twannberg meteorite fall and compare the strewn field shape, total mass on the surface and the largest mass with available data. The most probable pre-atmospheric radius should be 1-2 m, although a larger body cannot be excluded.

  • Morgan J.V., Artemieva N.A. Climatic gases released from the Chicxulub impact
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2017, vol. 52 , p. A244

    We revisit the release of climatically-active gases by the Chicxulub impact using an advanced hydrocode and new data on the angle and direction of impact, and target rocks.

  • Shuvalov V.V., Khazins V.M. Ionospheric disturbances initiated by explosive disruption of Chelyabinsk and Tunguska cosmic bodies
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2017, vol. 52 , p. A320

    We calculated the dynamic flows in the upper atmosphere up to a few hours after the impact in case of small bodies (Chelyabinsk) and larger events (Tunguska).

  • Svetsov V.V., Shuvalov V.V. Effects of thermal radiation from impact plumes
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2017, vol. 52 , p. A340

    Numerical simulations of impacts and calculations of radiation fluxes on the ground have been performed. Fractions of impactor kinetic energy emitted as thermal radiation, areas of potential fire ignition and melting of rocks are determined.

  • Kocharyan G.G., Ostapchuk A.A., Martynov V.S. Alteration of Fault Deformation Mode under Fluid Injection
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2017, vol. 53, No. 2, p. 216–223

  • Adushkin V.V., Kishkina S.B., Kocharyan G.G. New Approach to Monitoring Induced Earthquakes
    JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE, 2017, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 1–11

  • Goderis, S., Tagle, R., Fritz, J., Bartoschewitz, R., Artemieva, N. On the nature of the Ni-rich component in splash-fonn Australasian tektites
    GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA, 2017, vol. 217 , p. 28–50

    The Australasian tektite strewn field is exceptional, not only as the largest and most recent, but also as the only strewn field without an identified source impact crater. Therefore, scenarios without the formation of an impact crater, such as a low altitude cometary airburst, have proven hard to discard. Here, new geochemical evidence is presented for mixing of projectile and target material, which implies the formation of an Australasian tektite-related impact crater. First, ninety-two Australasian tektites were grouped according to their Cr, Co and Ni concentrations. Based on this data, Australasian tektites with the highest Ni contents (>200 μg/g) occur more than 1500 km south-southeast (SSE) of the northern Indochina region, with the highest concentration of Ni-rich tektites in South Vietnam, the islands of Borneo, Belitung, and Java, and reports in literature for Ni-rich tektites in central Australia. The tektites with the highest Cr and Ni abundances often also show highly siderophile element (HSE) enrichments of up to 4 ng/g Ir. The most Ni-rich samples exhibit broadly chondrite-relative HSE proportions. However, a chondritic impactor contribution appears to be inconsistent with the observed Ni/Cr, Ni/Co, and Cr/Co ratios. A previously suggested significant terrestrial mantle contribution can also not explain the siderophile element enrichments in combination with relatively low FeOtot (<7 wt.%) and MgO (<4 wt.%) contents. Elemental fractionation during impact cratering or tektite formation by an impactor with a chondritic signature may explain these observations. Alternatively, a projectile component from a primitive achondrite may be advocated, with contribution from a mafic to ultramafic extraterrestrial lithology with a relatively unfractionated HSE signature and Ni/Cr ratio distinctly higher than those of Earth's mantle. Element distribution maps obtained from individual Australasian tektites document complex mingling processes of chemically distinct melt batches, each exhibiting variable contributions from distinct endmember compositions. These texturally recorded mingling processes are consistent with high-resolution numerical models of impact cratering processes that resolve the growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at the projectile/target interface during impact, when both materials co-occur at high pressure. These numerical models indicate that Ni-rich tektite populations across the central part of the Australasian tektite strewn field could represent projectile-enriched material preferentially ejected downrange. Continued tracing of this Ni-rich component across the strewn field may help to constrain the location of the yet to be identified source crater of the Australasian (micro)tektites.

  • Shuvalov V., Svetsov V., Popova O., Glazachev D. Numerical model of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid as a strengthless object
    PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE, 2017, vol. 147 , p. 38-47

    The extraordinary Chelyabinsk airburst of 15 February 2013 is considered in the frame of quasi-liquid model (QL model), in which the entering body is treated as a strengthless quasi-liquid object, and its deformation and the flow are described by the hydrodynamic equations. Despite the QL model was originally proposed to model the impacts of the cosmic objects, which size is larger than a few tens of meters, the model predicts overpressure and radiation distributions on the ground in reasonable agreement with observational data for Chelyabinsk event. This model can be used for assessment of impact hazards for the whole range of dangerous cosmic objects. The influence of entry angle on surface effects is considered.

  • Adushkin V., Spivak A., Kharlamov V. A new method of testing of the Earth's free oscillations on the basis of geomagnetic variation analysis
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2017, vol. 476, No. 2, p. 1159–1162

  • Bekker S.Z., Doronin A., Kozlov S.I. Critical analysis of active methods of ozone layer recovery
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY , 2017, vol. 57, No. 5, p. 630–636

  • Svetsov V.V., Artemieva N.A., Shuvalov V.V. Seismic efficiency of meteor airbursts
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2017, vol. 475, No. 2, p. 935–938

    We present the results of numerical simulation for impacts of relatively small asteroids and ice bodies of 30-100 m in size, decelerated in the atmosphere and exploding before they reach the surface, but still producing seismic effects due to the impact wave reaching the surface. The calculated magnitudes fall within the range of 4 to 6, and average seismic efficiency of these events is 2.5 × 10-5. The results obtained allow the seismic hazard from impacts of cosmic bodies to be estimated.

  • Bronikowska М., Artemieva N.A., Wunnemann K. Reconstruction of the Morasko meteoroid impact-Insight from numerical modeling
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2017, vol. 52, No. 8, p. 1704–1721

    The Morasko strewn field located near Poznań, Poland comprises seven impact craters with diameters ranging from 20 to 90 m, all of which were formed in glacial sediments around 5000 yr ago. Numerous iron meteorites have been recovered in the area and their distribution suggests a projectile with the trajectory from NE to SW. Similar impact events producing crater strewn fields on average happen every 500 yr and pose a serious risk for modern civilization, which is why it is of utmost importance to study terrestrial strewn fields in detail. In this work, we investigate the Morasko meteoroid passage through the atmosphere, the distribution of its fragments on the ground, and the process of forming individual craters by means of numerical modeling. By combining atmospheric entry modeling, Pi-group scaling of transient crater size and hydrocode simulations of impact processes, we constructed a comprehensive model of the Morasko strewn field formation. We determined the preatmospheric parameters of the Morasko meteoroid. The entry mass is between 600 and 1100 tons, the velocity range is between 16 and 18 km s-1, and the trajectory angle is 30-40°. Such entry velocities and trajectory angles do not deviate from typical values for near-Earth asteroids, although the initial mass we determined can be considered as small. Our studies on velocities and masses of crater-forming fragments showed that the biggest Morasko crater was formed by a projectile about 1.5 m in diameter with the impact velocity 10 km s-1. Environmental consequences of the Morasko impact event are very localized.

  • Gavrilov B.G., Zetser Yu.I., Lyakhov A.N., Poklad Yu.V., Ryakhovskii I.A. Spatiotemporal Distributions of the Electron Density in the Ionosphere by Records of the Total Electron Content and Phase of VLF Radio Signals
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2017, vol. 57, No. 4, p. 461–470

  • Adushkin V.V., Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A. Lunar-Solar Tide Effects in the Earth's Crust and Atmosphere
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2017, vol. 53, No. 4, p. 565–580

  • Miao X., Gerke K.M., Sizonenko T.O. A new way to parameterize hydraulic conductances of pore elements: A step towards creating pore-networks without pore shape, simplifications
    ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES, 2017, vol. 105 , p. 162–172

  • Adushkin V., Veniaminov S., Kozlov S., Doronin A., Silnikov M. Natural and technogeneous contamination of near-Earth space
    ACTA ASTRONAUTICA, 2017, vol. 135 , p. 6–9

  • Turuntaev S.B., Riga V.Y. Non-linear effects of pore pressure increase on seismic event generation in a multi-degree-of-freedom rate-and-state model of tectonic fault sliding
    NONLINEAR PROCESSES IN GEOPHYSICS, 2017, vol. 24, No. 2, p. 215–225

  • Soloviev S.P., Rybnov Yu.S., Kharlamov V.A., Krasheninnikov A.V. Acoustic gravity waves and the atmospheric electric field perturbations accompanying them
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2017, vol. 57, No. 3, p. 335–346

    Data on observations of acoustic gravity waves and variations in the electric field strength in the surface layer of the atmosphere are presented. Analysis of the obtained data shows that synchronous variations in the pressure and electric field strength appear with the passage of a weather front, solar terminator, and in some other cases. It is seen that the amplitude of electric field perturbations is approximately proportional to the amplitude of variation in the pressure. A possible mechanism of generating electric field perturbations during the passage of microbaroms has been considered.

  • Adushkin V.V., Spivak A.A., Ryabova S.A., Kharlamov V.A. Tidal effects in geomagnetic variations
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2017, vol. 474, No. 1, p. 579–582

  • Kocharyan G.G., Ostapchuk A.A., Pavlov D.V., Ruzhich V.V., Batukhtin I.V., Vinogradov E.A., Kamai A.M., Markov V.K. Experimental Study of different modes of block sliding along Interface. Part 2. Field experiments and phenomenological model of the phenomenon
    PHYSICAL MESOMECHANICS, 2017, vol. 20, No. 2, p. 193–202

  • Budkov A.M., Kocharyan G.G. Experimental study of different modes of block sliding along interface. Part 3. Numerical modeling
    PHYSICAL MESOMECHANICS, 2017, vol. 20, No. 2, p. 203–208

  • Adushkin V.V., Bobrov D.I., Kitov I.O., Rozhkov M.V., Sanina I.A. Remote detection of aftershock activity as a new method of seismic monitoring
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES, 2017, vol. 473, No. 1, p. 303–307

  • Riabova S.A., Spivak A.A. Geomagnetic Variation Peculiarities at Middle Latitudes of the East European Platform
    GEOMAGNETISM AND AERONOMY, 2017, vol. 57, No. 2, p. 199–206

  • Ruzhich V., Kocharyan G. On the structure and formation of earthquake sources in the faults located in the subsurface and deep levels of the crust. Part 1. Subsurface level
    GEODYNAMICS&TECTONOPHYSICS, 2017, vol. 8, No. 4, p. 1021–1034

  • Baryshnikov N.A., Belyakov G.V., Turuntaev S.B. Two-phase jet flows in porous media
    FLUID DYNAMICS, 2017, vol. 52, No. 1, p. 128–137

  • Khazins V.M., Shuvalov V.V. The model of an eruptive column produced by phreatomagmatic explosions
    JOURNAL OF VOLCANOLOGY AND SEISMOLOGY, 2017, vol. 11, No. 1, p. 33–42

    This paper presents the results from the simulation of a phreatomagmatic eruption, in which the formation of the eruptive column is controlled by interaction between magma and water or ice. The process leads to intensive fragmentation of the magma and to mixing of ash and steam with ambient air. Such processes were typical of the initial phase in the April 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano. It is hypothesized that phreatic explosions produce a dynamic pulsating system that consists of buoyant volumes of the mixture (thermals) that are forming at the base of the eruptive column. A 3-D simulation was used to assess two possible regimes in the evolution of the eruptive column: (1) continuous transport of the mixture into the eruptive column through its base for the case in which the thermals are generated at a high rate and (2) periodic flotation of the thermals whose diameters are comparable with that of the base of the eruptive column. It is shown that one can find a suitable selection of the initial concentrations of ash, steam, and air to achieve a satisfactory agreement between theory and actually observed heights of the gas–ash “clouds” that were formed during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The data for our calculations were taken from publications. We also investigated how wind and the changes in the initial parameters affect the process.

  • Besedina A.N., Kabychenko N.V. Rationale for Applying Short-Period Sensors with Extended Frequency Response for Recording Strong Earthquakes
    SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS, 2017, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 19–27

  • Adushkin V.V., Loktev D.N., Spivak A.A. Seismomagnetic response of a fault zone
    IZVESTIYA-PHYSICS OF THE SOLID EARTH, 2017, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 83–91

  • Shuvalov V.V., Svettsov V.V., Artem'eva N.A., Trubetskaya I.A., Popova O.P., Glazachev D.O. Asteroid Apophis: Evaluating the impact hazards of such bodies
    SOLAR SYSTEM RESEARCH, 2017, vol. 51, No. 1, p. 44–58

    Soon after the discovery of asteroid 99942 Apophis, it was classified as a potentially hazardous object with a high probability of an impact on the Earth in 2029. Although subsequent observations have substantially reduced the probability of a collision, it has not been ruled out; moreover, similar-sized asteroids in orbits intersecting the Earth's orbit may well be discovered in the near future. We conduct a numerical simulation of an atmospheric passage and an impact on the Earth's surface of a stony cosmic body with a diameter of 300 m and kinetic energy of about 1000 Mt, which roughly corresponds to the parameters of the asteroid Apophis, at atmospheric entry angles of 90° (vertical stroke), 45°, and 30°. The simulation is performed by solving three-dimensional equations of hydrodynamics and radiative transfer equations in the approximations of radiative heat conduction and volume emission. The following hazards are considered: an air shock wave, ejecta from the crater, thermal radiation, and ionospheric disturbances. Our calculations of the overpressure and wind speed on the Earth's surface show that the zone of destruction of the weakest structures can be as large as 700-1000 km in diameter; a decrease in the flight path angle to the surface leads to a marked increase in the area affected by the shock wave. The ionospheric disturbances are global in nature and continue for hours: at distances of several thousand kilometers at altitudes of more than 100 km, air density disturbances are tens of percent and the vertical and horizontal velocity components reach hundreds of meters per second. The impact of radiation on objects on the Earth's surface is estimated by solving the equation of radiative transfer along rays passing through a luminous area. In clear weather, the size of the zone where thermal heating may ignite wood can be as large as 200 km, and the zone of individual fire outbreaks associated with the ignition of flammable materials can be twice as large. In the 100-km central area, which is characterized by very strong thermal damage, there is ignition of structures, roofs, clothes, etc. The human hazardous area increases with the decrease in the trajectory angle, and people may experience thermal effects at distances of up to 250-400 km from the crater.

  • Zhu M.-H., Wünnemann K., Artemieva N. Effects of Moon's Thermal State on the Impact Basin Ejecta Distribution
    Geophysical Research Letters, 2017, vol. 44, No. 22, p. 11292–11300

  • Luther R., Artemieva N., Ivanova М., Lorenz C., Wunnemann K. Snow carrots after the Chelyabinsk event and model implications for highly porous solar system objects
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2017, vol. 52, No. 5, p. 979–999

    After the catastrophic disruption of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid, small fragments formed funnels in the snow layer covering the ground. We constrain the pre-impact characteristics of the fragments by simulating their atmospheric descent with the atmospheric entry model. Fragments resulting from catastrophic breakup may lose about 90% of their initial mass due to ablation and reach the snow vertically with a free-fall velocity in the range of 30-90 m s-1. The fall time of the fragments is much longer than their cooling time, and, as a consequence, fragments have the same temperature as the lower atmosphere, i.e., of about -20 °C. Then, we use the shock physics code iSALE to model the penetration of fragments into fluffy snow, the formation of a funnel and a zone of denser snow lining its walls. We examine the influence of several material parameters of snow and present our best-fit model by comparing funnel depth and funnel wall characteristics with observations. In addition, we suggest a viscous flow approximation to estimate funnel depth dependence on the meteorite mass. We discuss temperature gradient metamorphism as a possible mechanism which allows to fill the funnels with denser snow and to form the observed "snow carrots." This natural experiment also helps us to calibrate the iSALE code for simulating impacts into highly porous matter in the solar system including tracks in the aerogel catchers of the Stardust mission and possible impact craters on the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet observed recently by the Rosetta mission.

  • Popova O.P., Glazachev D.O., Podobnaya E.D., Svetsov V.V., Shuvalov V.V. Radiation of large meteoroids decelerated in the earth’s atmosphere
    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 2017, vol. 52 , p. А275

    Analyzes of numerical simulation results permit to suggest simplified approximations, which allow to estimate radiative fluxes on the Earth's surface based on impactor properties.

  • Gorbunova E., Vinogradov E., Besedina A. Aquifer properties distant control
    SGEM, 2017, vol. 17, No. 12, p. 71–78

  • G.G. Kocharyan, V.A. Novikov, A.A. Ostapchuk and D.V. Pavlov A study of different fault slip modes governed by the gouge material composition in laboratory experiments
    Geophysical Journal International, 2017, vol. 208, No. 1, p. 521-528

    Described are results of laboratory experiments which revealed regularities of gradual transition from stick-slip mode to aseismic creep. The behaviour of model gouge-filled fault was investigated with experimental setup of the spring-bock model. It was experimentally proven that small variations of a percentage of materials with velocity strengthening and velocity weakening properties in the fault principal slip zone may result in significant variation of the portion of seismic energy radiated during a fault slip event. The tests simulated different modes of interblock sliding whose characteristic values of scaled kinetic energy varied by several orders of magnitude, while differences in contact strength and shear stress drop remained relatively small. The obtained results led to the conclusion that the earthquake radiation efficiency and the fault slip mode are governed by the ratio of two parameters—maximum fault slip-weakening rate and shear stiffness of the enclosing massif. The ratio can be essentially changed by small variations of the material composition of the fault principal slip zone.

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

  • Рябова С.А., Спивак А.А. Вариации К-индекса геомагнитной активности в Московском регионе
    Геофизические процессы и биосфера, 2017, vol. 16, No. 4, p. 28-36

    На основе анализа и обобщения результатов инструментальных наблюдений за магнитным полем на Геофизической обсерватории «Михнево» Института динамики геосфер Российской академии наук в период 2009-2015 гг. установлено, что геофизическая обстановка Московского региона характеризуется значительным количеством дней с возмущенным состоянием геомагнитного поля. Установлена тенденция к увеличению геомагнитной активности со временем: за период с 2009 по 2015 гг. количество дней с возмущенной геомагнитной обстановкой увеличилось практически в 8 раз. Повторяемость геомагнитных возмущений характеризуется четко выраженными периодичностями с характерными периодами около 14, 27, 60, 182 и 365 сут.

  • Спивак А.А., Рыбнов Ю.С., Соловьев С.П., Харламов В.А. Акустические и электрические предвестники сильных грозовых явлений в условиях мегаполиса
    Геофизические процессы и биосфера, 2017, vol. 16, No. 4, p. 81-91.

    Приведен анализ результатов инструментальных наблюдений за электрическим полем и микропульсациями атмосферного давления в приземной атмосфере в период сильных гроз в г. Москве за период 2014-2016 гг. Показано, что приход грозового фронта предварялся длиннопериодными (период ~10 мин) вариациями напряженности электрического поля, внутренними гравитационными волнами, а также повышенными значениями импедансного акустического соотношения. После прихода холодного атмосферного фронта, а также в период грозовых явлений наблюдаются более высокочастотные вариации электрического поля (период ~1 мин) и повышенная турбулизация атмосферы. На заключительной стадии явления практически отсутствуют ветровые движения в атмосфере, наблюдаются внутренние гравитационные волны, период вариаций электрического поля увеличивается до ~15 мин.

  • Адушкин В.В., Локтев Д.Н., Спивак А.А. Сейсмомагнитный отклик разломной зоны
    Физика Земли, 2017 , No. 1, p. 87–96

    На основе результатов инструментальных наблюдений за геомагнитными вариациями, вызванными распространением сейсмических волн через разломную зону, получены зависимости между амплитудами наведенного сейсмомагнитного эффекта и сейсмического сигнала в зависимости от расстояния до серединной линии разлома r. Впервые показано, что амплитуда сейсмомагнитного эффекта максимальна в зоне влияния разлома. Предложена феноменологическая модель генерации магнитных сигналов при распространении сейсмических волн через раздробленную горную породу в зоне тектонического разлома. Предполагается, что геомагнитные вариации возникают при изменении электрической проводимости фрагментированных горных пород в результате деформировании контактов отдельностей. Рассчитанные по модели амплитуды геомагнитных вариаций согласуются с данными инструментальных наблюдений.

  • Рябова С.А., Спивак А.А. Особенности геомагнитных вариаций на средних широтах Восточно-Европейской платформы
    Геомагнетизм и аэрономия, 2017, vol. 57, No. 2, p. 217–225

    Приведены и обсуждаются результаты инструментальных наблюдений за геомагнитными вариациями на среднеширотной обсерватории «Михнево» Института динамики геосфер РАН (54.9595° N; 37.7664° Е). Определены основные периодичности локальных фоновых вариаций магнитного поля Земли в приземной атмосфере. Наряду с вариациями ~27 суток, зарегистрированы также периодичности с периодами ~ 6 - 9; 12 - 14; 60 суток и полугодовая периодичность. Показано, что периодичности фоновых геомагнитных вариаций имеют спорадический и скейлинговый характер. Обнаружен эффект чередования периодов увеличения и деградации интенсивности геомагнитных вариаций.

  • Адушкин В.В., Рябова С.А., Спивак А.А. Эффекты лунно-солнечного прилива в земной коре и атмосфере Земли
    Физика Земли, 2017 , No. 4, p. 76–92

    Рассматривается влияние гравитационного взаимодействия в системе Земля-Луна-Солнце на формирование временных вариаций геофизических полей и некоторых природных процессов. По результатам анализа результатов инструментальных наблюдений выделены основные периодичности и цикличности временных вариаций объемной активности подпочвенного радона, периоды которых совпадают с периодами изменений вертикальной компоненты приливной силы. Демонстрируется амплитудная модуляция сейсмического фона лунно-солнечным приливом. Показано, что интенсивность релаксационных процессов в земной коре характеризуется околосуточной периодичностью, а в спектре вариаций уровня подземных вод хорошо выделяются приливные волны. На основе данных, полученных при регистрации наклонов земной поверхности, анализируется роль приливной деформации в формировании блоковых движений в земной коре. Предложен новый подход к регистрации приливных волн в атмосфере на основе анализа микропульсаций атмосферного давления с помощью адаптивных режекторных фильтров.

  • Адушкин В.В., Спивак А.А., Рябова С.А., Харламов В.А. Приливные эффекты в геомагнитных вариациях
    Доклады академии наук, 2017, vol. 474, No. 2, p. 226–229

    Представлены результаты обработки и анализа геомагнитных вариаций, выполнены оценки их спектров и впервые выделены волны лунно-солнечных приливов на огибающих геомагнитных вариаций околосуточного диапазона, а также с периодами 13.66 и 27.55 сут. Установленные особенности спектра геомагнитных вариаций открывают новые возможности для оценки вязкости внешнего ядра Земли, описания геомагнитного динамо, разработки новых моделей движения внутреннего ядра Земли и динамики токовых систем во внешнем (жидком) ядре, а также установления общих закономерностей, определяющих режимы энергообменных процессов в геосферах.

  • Сухоруков М.В., Спивак А.А. Пространственно-временные особенности поля радона в связи с тектоническими структурами
    Успехи современного естествознания, 2017 , No. 1, p. 94–99

    В работе представлены результаты анализа пространственно-временных рядов объемной активности радона 222Rn (ОА), в том числе синхронных временных рядов на разных глубинах, в районах измерений с тектоническими структурами разного ранга. Установлено, что средние значения и вариации ОА 222Rn определяются расположением источников радона и серединных участков тектонических структур и монотонно увеличиваются с глубиной. Установлено, что временные вариации на разных глубинах синхронны, что говорит о значительном вкладе в процесс переноса фильтрации и нелинейной диффузии. Предложена модель выноса на поверхность радона 222Rn, в которой коэффициент диффузии радона зависит от глубины, а скорость фильтрации постоянна.

  • Рябова С.А., Спивак А.А. Возмущение сейсмического фона геомагнитными импульсами
    Геофизические исследования, 2017, vol. 18, No. 2, p. 65–76

    Приведены и анализируются результаты синхронных инструментальных наблюдений за вариациями геомагнитного поля на поверхности земной коры и сейсмического фона, выполненных на Геофизической обсерватории «Михнево» ИДГ РАН в период 2008–2015 гг. Показано, что геомагнитные импульсы (SI-сигналы) и внезапные начала магнитных бурь (SSC-сигналы) могут вызывать повышенные вариации сейсмического фона в диапазоне частот 0.01–0.1 Гц. Установлена зависимость между амплитудами геомагнитных вариаций импульсного типа и вызванных вариаций фоновых сейсмических колебаний.

  • Адушкин В.В., Спивак А.А., Рыбнов Ю.С., Харламов В.А. Приливные волны и вариации давления в атмосфере Земли /
    Геофизические исследования, 2017, vol. 18, No. 3, p. 67–80

    Анализируются результаты инструментальных наблюдений, выполненных на геофизической обсерватории «Михнево» и в Центре геофизического мониторинга г. Москвы ИДГ РАН в период 2008–2015 гг., с целью исследования влияния лунно-солнечного прилива на вариации атмосферного давления. Вариации атмосферного давления регистрировались в частотном диапазоне 104–102 Гц. Оценка спектральных характеристик вариаций атмосферного давления проводилась на основе метода параметрической авторегрессии. С целью повышения уровня дискриминации близких по периодам приливных волн в атмосфере применялся метод выделения гармонических составляющих с помощью узкополосных адаптивных режекторных фильтров. В результате обработки данных на спектрах вариаций атмосферного давления выделены основные приливные волны с околосуточными и полусуточными периодами. Получено, что суточные и полусуточные гармоники вариаций атмосферного давления сопровождаются боковыми равноудаленными спектральными линиями, что является прямым указанием на модуляцию указанных спектральных составляющих. Периоды модуляции соответствующих приливных волн составляют около 13.6; 27.5 сут, а также 1/3, 1/2 и 1 г. Глубина модуляции приливной волны S1 годовой гармоникой составляет около 0.9, а полугодовой – ~0.2. Для приливных волн S2, K2, R2, T2 и λ2 соответствующие величины модуляции оцениваются величинами ~ 0.5 и 0.15.

  • Шувалов В.В., Светцов В.В., Артемьева Н.А., Трубецкая И.А., Попова О.П., Глазачев Д.О. Астероид Апофис – оценка опасных последствий ударов подобных тел
    Астрономический вестник, 2017, vol. 51, No. 1, p. 51–66

    Астероид 99 942 Апофис в течение короткого времени после его обнаружения был классифицирован как очень опасный объект, вероятность столкновения которого с Землей в 2029 г. очень высока. И хотя последующие наблюдения значительно уменьшили оценку вероятности столкновения, оно не исключено, кроме того, астероиды аналогичного размера на орбитах, пересекающихся с орбитой Земли, вполне могут быть обнаружены в ближайшем будущем. Мы провели численное моделирование полета через атмосферу и удара о поверхность Земли каменного космического тела диаметром 300 м c кинетической энергией порядка 1000 Мт, что примерно соответствует параметрам астероида Апофис, для углов входа в атмосферу 90° (вертикальный удар), 45° и 30°. Моделирование проводилось путем решения трехмерных уравнений гидродинамики и уравнений переноса излучения в приближениях лучистой теплопроводности и объемного высвечивания. В качестве опасных факторов рассматривались воздушная ударная волна, выбросы из кратера, тепловое излучение и ионосферные возмущения. Расчеты избыточного давления и скорости ветра на поверхности Земли показали, что размер (диаметр) зоны разрушений наиболее слабых конструкций может достигать 700–1000 км, причем уменьшение угла наклона траектории к поверхности приводит к заметному увеличению площади, поражаемой ударной волной. Возмущения ионосферы имеют глобальный характер и длятся часами: на расстояниях в несколько тысяч километров на высотах более 100 км возмущения плотности воздуха составляют десятки процентов, а вертикальные и горизонтальные компоненты скорости достигают сотен метров в секунду. Воздействие излучения на объекты, расположенные на поверхности Земли, оценивалось путем

  • Соловьев С.П., Рыбнов Ю.С., Харламов В.А., Крашенинников А.В. Акустико-гравитационные волны и сопутствующие им возмущения атмосферного электрического поля
    Геомагнетизм и аэрономия, 2017, vol. 57, No. 3, p. 363–375

    Приводятся данные наблюдений акустико-гравитационных волн и вариаций напряженности электрического поля в приземном слое атмосферы. Анализ полученных данных показал, что при прохождении атмосферного фронта, солнечного терминатора и в ряде других случаев возникают синхронные вариации давления и напряженности электрического поля. Наблюдается приблизительная пропорциональность амплитуды возмущений электрического поля и амплитуды изменения давления. Рассмотрен возможный механизм генерации возмущений электрического поля при прохождении микробаром.

  • Беккер С.З., Доронин А.П., Козлов С.И. Критический анализ активных методов восстановления озонового слоя Земли
    Геомагнетизм и аэрономия, 2017, vol. 57, No. 5, p. 676–682

    Дается критический анализ различных методов восстановления озонового слоя Земли: выбросы газов класса алканов, разрушение фреонов лазерным ИК-излучением и с помощью СВЧ – разряда, воздействие лазерным УФ-излучением и электрическим разрядом в атмосфере, использование излучения солнца и лазерного ИК-излучения, использование источников гамма-излучения, создание на больших высотах искусственного образования, экранизирующего диссоциирующее озон солнечное излучение. Отмечены наиболее оптимальные методы с точки зрения их эффективности, экономических затрат и экологических последствий. К ним относится использование источников гамма-излучения, электрического разряда в атмосфере и СВЧ-пробоя.

  • Светцов В.В., Артемьева Н.А., Шувалов В.В. Сейсмическая эффективность метеорных взрывов
    Доклады Академии наук, 2017, vol. 475, No. 5, p. 576–579

    Представлены результаты численного моделирования падений относительно небольших астероидов и ледяных тел размером 30–100 м, которые тормозятся в атмосфере, не достигая поверхности Земли, но создают сейсмический эффект за счет воздействия ударной волны на поверхность. Вычисленные магнитуды лежат в диапазоне от 4 до 6, а средняя сейсмическая эффективность таких событий составляет 2.5.10-5. Полученные результаты позволяют оценивать сейсмическую опасность, исходящую от ударов космических тел.

  • Адушкин В.В., Спивак А.А., Харламов В.А. Новый метод изучения собственных колебаний земли на основе анализа геомагнитных вариаций
    Доклады Академии наук, 2017, vol. 476, No. 4, p. 452–455

  • Барышников Н.А., Беляков Г.В., Турунтаев С.Б. Двухфазные струйные течения в пористых средах
    Известия Российской академии наук : Механика жидкости и газа, 2017 , No. 1, p. 130–139

  • Кабыченко Н.В., Беседина А.Н., Волосов С.Г., Королев С.А., Кочарян Г.Г. Короткопериодные сейсмометры в сейсмологии
    Сейсмические приборы, 2017, vol. 53, No. 1, p. 44–65

  • Китов И.О., Санина И.А., Сергеев С.С., Нестеркина М.А., Константиновская Н.Л. Обнаружение, оценка магнитуды и относительная локация слабых афтершоков с помощью кросс-корреляции волновых форм: землетрясение 7 августа 2016 г. в Мариуполе
    Сейсмические приборы, 2017, vol. 53, No. 2, p. 58–80

  • Ружич В.В., Кочарян Г.Г. О строении и формировании очагов землетрясений в разломах на приповерхностном и глубинном уровне земной коры. Статья I. Приповерхностный уровень
    Geodynamics & Tectonophysics, 2017, vol. 8, No. 4, p. 1021–1034

  • Гоев А.Г., Косарев Г.Л., Ризниченко О.Ю. Новые результаты исследования параметров анизотропии Восточно-Европейской платформы по данным станций OBN И ARU
    Современные методы обработки и интерпретации сейсмологических данных: материалы XII Международной сейсмологической школы, 2017 , p. 119–120

  • Турунтаев С.Б. Сейсмичность при разработке месторождений углеводородов: отрицательные и положительные эффекты
    Фундаментальный базис инновационных технологий нефтяной и газовой промышленности: материалы Всероссийской научной конференции, посвящённой 30-летию ИПНГ РАН, 2017 , p. 156–157

  • Гришина Е.И., Асминг В.Э., Баранов С.В., Белевская М.А., Богинская Н.В., Варлашова Ю.В., Волосов С.Г., Габсатарова И.П., Голубева И.В., Данилова Т.В., Девяткина Л.В., Денега Е.Г., Денисенко Г.А., Децик И.В., Дягилев Р.А., Злобина Т.В., Иванова Л.Е., Карпи Сведения о наиболее крупных промышленных взрывах
    Землетрясения России в 2015 году, 2017 , p. 178–191

  • Рябова С.А Вариации геомагнитного типпера в результате изменения режима подземных вод на ГФО «МИХНЕВО»
    Строение литосферы и геодинамика: материалы ХХVII Всероссийской молодежной конференции c участием исследователей из других стран, 2017 , p. 194

  • Вениаминов С.С., Клюшников В.Ю., Козлов С.И., Нагорский П.М. Анализ аварийности при запуске ракет в РФ (СССР) и США
    Двенадцатое Сибирское совещание и школа молодых ученых по климато-экологическому мониторингу: тезисы докладов российской конференции, 2017 , p. 201–202

  • Кочарян Г.Г., Новиков В.А., Остапчук А.А. Различные типы скольжения по разломам и излучение сейсмических волн
    Проблемы геодинамики и геоэкологии внутриконтинентальных орогенов: тезисы докладов VII Международного симпозиума к 80-летию со дня рождения выдающегося ученого, основателя и первого директора НС РАН Ю.А. Трапезникова, 2017 , p. 231

  • Беккер С.З., Ляхов А.Н. Уточнение варьируемых параметров детерминированно-вероятностной модели D-области ионосферы на основании экспериментальных данных
    Международная Байкальская молодежная научная школа по фундаментальной физике: труды XV Конференции молодых ученых, 2017 , p. 237–239

  • Габсатарова И.П., Голубева И.В., Дягилев Р.А., Карпинский В.В., Мехрюшев Д.Ю., Надежка Л.И., Нестеренко М.Ю., Петров С.И., Пивоваров С.П., Пойгина С.Г., Санина И.А., Французова В.И. Восточно-Европейская платформа, Урал и Западная Сибирь
    Землетрясения России в 2015 году , 2017 , p. 24–30

  • Нестеркина М.А., Сергеев С.И., Санина И.А., Константиновская Н.Л., Данилова Т.В., Гоев А.Г. Классификация сейсмических событий, регистрируемых в непосредственной близости от ГФО «МИХНЕВО».
    Современные методы обработки и интерпретации сейсмологических данных: материалы XII Международной сейсмологической школы, 2017 , p. 246–249

  • Новиков В.А., Кочарян Г.Г. Трансформация режима скольжения имитатора разлома на пружинно-блочной модели при высоком нормальном давлении
    Проблемы геодинамики и геоэкологии внутриконтинентальных орогенов: тезисы докладов VII Международного симпозиума 80-летию со дня рождения выдающегося ученого, основателя и первого директора НС РАН Ю.А. Трапезникова , 2017 , p. 254–255

  • Новиков В.А., Кочарян Г.Г. Экспериментальное исследование возможности перевода прерывистого скольжения в крип за счет инжекции жидкости в имитатор разлома на пружинно-блочной модели.
    Проблемы геодинамики и геоэкологии внутриконтинентальных орогенов: тезисы докладов VII Международного симпозиума 80-летию со дня рождения Ю.А. Трапезникова, 2017 , p. 252–253

  • Санина И.А., Ризниченко О.Ю., Сергеев К.С. Вариации диссипативных свойств земной коры центральной части ВЕП по данным о карьерных взрывах
    Современные методы обработки и интерпретации сейсмологических данных: материалы XII Международной сейсмологической школы, 2017 , p. 308–311

  • Сергеев К.С., Сергеев С.И., Волосов С.Г., Королёв С.А., Бондарчук Д.Г. Корреляционная идентификация источников сейсмических воздействий по данным акселерометрического мониторинга
    Современные методы обработки и интерпретации сейсмологических данных: материалы XII Международной сейсмологической школы, 2017 , p. 333–337

  • Непеина К.С. Актуальность идей г.а. гамбурцева в геофизике при составлении карт общего сейсмического районирования (ОСР)
    Институт истории естествознания и техники им. С.И. Вавилова. Годичная научная конференция, посвященная 85-летию ИИЕТ РАН, 2017 , p. 529–532

  • Ряховский И.А., Гаврилов Б.Г., Зецер Ю.И., Ляхов А.Н., Поклад Ю.В., Беккер С.З. Исследование пространственно-временных характеристик ионосферных неоднородностей при помощи трехбазной сети приемников ГНСС
    Международная Байкальская молодежная научная школа по фундаментальной физике: тезисы докладов XV Конференции молодых ученых, 2017 , p. 92–93

  • Остапчук А.А., Салтыков Н.В., Мартынов В.С. Изменение кинематических параметров скольжения модельного разлома при медленных и быстрых деформационных событиях
    Физическая мезомеханика, 2017, vol. 20, No. 6, p. 29–39

  • Адушкин В.В., Кишкина С.Б., Кочарян Г.Г. Новый подход к мониторингу техногенно-тектонических землетрясений
    Физико-технические проблемы разработки полезных ископаемых, 2017 , No. 1, p. 3–14

    Обобщение результатов обследований гипоцентральных зон сильнейших техногенных землетрясений показало, что накопленная в массиве горных пород деформация реализуется в виде подвижек по уже существующим разломам. Согласно результатам проведенных экспериментов, переход участка разлома в метастабильное состояние сопровождается снижением его динамической сдвиговой жесткости. Процесс изменения механических свойств контакта начинается задолго до того, как регистрируется макроскопическое перемещение берегов разлома. Этот эффект может быть обнаружен инструментально и использован в качестве основы развиваемого нового подхода к мониторингу техногенно-тектонических землетрясений.

  • Кочарян Г.Г., Остапчук А.А., Мартынов В.С. Изменение режима деформирования разлома в результате инжекции флюида
    Физико-технические проблемы разработки полезных ископаемых, 2017 , No. 2, p. 20–28

  • Адушкин В.В., Кишкина С.Б., Куликов В.И., Павлов Д.В., Анисимов В.Н., Салтыков Н.В., Сергеев С.В., Спунгин В.Г. Построение системы мониторинга потенциально опасных участков Коробковского месторождения Курской магнитной аномалии
    Физико-технические проблемы разработки полезных ископаемых, 2017 , No. 4, p. 3–13

    Приведены первые результаты апробации элементов системы мониторинга потенциально опасных участков Коробковского месторождения КМА. В основу системы положены сейсмические и деформационные измерения, направленные на оценку и контроль сдвиговой жесткости потенциально опасных разломов. Методом оценки жесткости разлома является анализ параметров сейсмических волн в его окрестности. Для диагностики выбранных разломов, в качестве источников сейсмических сигналов использовались взрывы на ближайших карьерах или взрывы в камерах шахты.

  • Адушкин В.В., Бобров Д.И., Китов И.О., Рожков М.В., Санина И.А. Дистанционное обнаружение афтершоковой эмиссии как новый метод сейсмического мониторинга
    Доклады Академии наук, 2017, vol. 473, No. 1, p. 83–87

  • Анисимов В.Н., Логачев И.И. О возможности использования высокоградиентных магнитных полей при деструкции железистых кварцитов в массиве
    Горный информационно-аналитический бюллетень (научно-технический журнал), 2017 , No. 1, p. 210

  • Горбунова Э.М., Виноградов Е.А., Беседина А.Н., Гашев Д.В. Реакция подземных вод на землетрясения и крупномасштабные взрывы
    Горный информационно-аналитический бюллетень (научно-технический журнал), 2017 , No. 1, p. 273–290

  • Сергеев С.И., Санина И.А., Королёв С.А., Волосов С.Г. Раннее обнаружение сейсмической активности в районах проведения горных работ с использованием малоапертурных сейсмических антенн
    Горный информационно-аналитический бюллетень (научно-технический журнал), 2017 , No. 10, p. 167–177

  • Сергеев С.И., Королёв С.А., Волосов С.Г., Кузнецов О.П. Развитие малоапертурной сейсмической антенны "МИХНЕВО" для решения новых сейсмологических задач
    Научное приборостроение, 2017, vol. 27, No. 1, p. 35–39

  • Куликов В.И., Акимкин М.С., Ганопольский М.И. Сейсмический эффект при разрушении строительных конструкций «Деструктором»
    Взрывное дело, 2017 , No. 74, p. 238–253

  • Башилов И.П., Волосов С.Г., Меркулов В.А., Рыбаков Н.П., Суконкин С.Я., Червинчук С.Ю. Результаты исследований макетов цифровых донных сейсмических станций ЦДСС-М и МДМ для охранных систем
    Наука и технологические разработки, 2017, vol. 96, No. 3, p. 19–32

  • Христофоров Б.Д. Влияние импульсов природного и техногенного характера на работу воздушно-реактивных двигателей
    Проблемы машиностроения и автоматизации, 2017 , No. 1, p. 35–40

  • Христофоров Б.Д. Исследование условий моделирования действия высотных взрывов ВВ приземными
    Проблемы машиностроения и автоматизации, 2017 , No. 3, p. 105–111

  • Христофоров Б.Д., Христофоров О.Б., Чертовских О.О. Исследование импульсных воздействий, моделируемых лазерным облучением, на работу авиационных двигателей
    Авиакосмическое приборостроение, 2017 , No. 9, p. 28–38

  • Христофоров Б.Д. Исследование РГД характеристик приземных и высотных взрывов ВВ
    Инженерная физика, 2017 , No. 7, p. 35–42

  • Христофоров Б.Д., Христофоров О.Б., Чертовских О.О. Исследование импульсных воздействий на работу авиационных двигателей
    Академический журнал Западной Сибири, 2017, vol. 13, No. 1, p. 55–56

  • Христофоров Б.Д., Христофоров О.Б., Чертовских О.О. Исследование импульсных воздействий на работу авиадвигателей
    News of Science and Education, 2017, vol. 8, No. 2, p. 022–026

  • Чен Б.Б., Попель С.И., Голоуб Ф., Адушкин В.В., Когай Г.А., Вайдлер П.Г., Фридрих Ф. Основные оптические и микрофизические свойства нано- и микромасштабного аэрозоля в атмосфере Центрально-Азиатского региона
    Вестник Кыргызско-Российского славянского университета, 2017, vol. 17, No. 8, p. 28–38

  • Кочарян Г.Г. Взаимодействие участков разломов с различными режимами
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 10–19

    Существование различных типов скольжения разломов часто связывают с концепцией существования прочных (asperity) и слабых участков. Более подходящим представляется предположение о наличии участков с отличающимися фрикционными свойствами. При этом разные фрикционные свойства заключаются в различии не столько коэффициента трения (разной фрикционной прочности), сколько закономерностей переходного процесса от трения покоя к трению скольжения. Именно как участки с разной скоростью снижения сопротивления сдвигу в процессе скольжения следует, по нашему мнению, понимать «жесткие» и «мягкие» включения. Изменения вещественного состава геоматериала в зоне скольжения разлома, порового давления, литостатических напряжений, температуры приводят к тому, что участки крупных разломов обладают разной жесткостью и на них реализуются различные режимы скольжения. Кроме того, деформации, происходящие на одном из сегментов гетерогенной разломной зоны, неизбежно сказываются на режиме скольжения соседних участков, а иногда и разлома в целом.

  • Турунтаев С.Б., Рига В.Ю. Нелинейные эффекты влияния роста порового давления на сейсмичность
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 29–40

    В статье на основе многоблочной модели rate-state с двухпараметрическим законом трения рассматривается развитие техногенных сейсмических процессов в результате закачки жидкости в недра. Решается задача об изменении порового давления в зоне разлома и изменении состояния скольжения по разлому. Определено влияние переменных, входящих в закон трения rate-state, на режим скольжения. Показано, что, при изменении параметров модели можно получить как случай быстрого роста сейсмической активности после начала закачки, так и ситуацию, когда основные сейсмические события происходят уже после окончания роста порового давления. Полученные результаты использованы для моделирования сейсмичности в районе Базельского геотермального проекта.

  • Сергеев В.Н. Универсальный предвестник катастроф – интерпретация и некоторые следствия
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 40–44

    Универсальный предвестник катастроф (замедление скорости восстановления состояния системы после воздействия при приближении состояния системы к порогу неустойчивости) предваряет катастрофические изменения состояния различных систем. Критическое замедление сопровождается увеличением «памяти» (что отражается в автокорреляции) и дисперсии в стохастически индуцированных колебаниях состояний системы. При приближении к порогу неустойчивости уменьшается частота и увеличивается амплитуда волновых движений, вызванных внешним воздействием. Последнее обстоятельство приводит к тому, что эти волновые движения могут являться триггером ката-строфического события.

  • Тримонова. М.А., Зенченко Е.В., Барышников Н.А., Зенченко П.Е., Турунтаев С.Б. Исследование изменения порового давления в лабораторном эксперименте по гидроразрыву пласта
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 145–154

    В работе представлены результаты лабораторных экспериментов по гидроразрыву пласта (ГРП) и измерению порового давления в образце в процессе экспериментов. Построены математические модели фильтрации жидкости в среде, модели уточнены по экспериментальным данным. По результатам интерпретации экспериментальных данных с помощью построенных моделей были сделаны выводы о влиянии трещины гидроразрыва на проницаемость образца.

  • Ружич В.В., Остапчук А.А. О геолого-геофизических условиях формирования крупномасштабных землетрясений в Монголо-Байкальском регионе Центральной Азии
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 227–235

    Обсуждаются новые материалы, собранные при геологическом изучении условий образования сейсмодислокаций сильных землетрясений, возникших на земной поверхности, а также в эксгумированных сегментах зон разломов Монголо-Байкальского региона Центральной Азии. Изложены авторские представления о РТ-условиях, оптимальных для зарождения очагов сильных землетрясений в сейсмофокальном горизонте земной коры и о способствующих этому факторах. Показано, что именно мультидисциплинарное изучение эндогенных условий зарождения очагов сильных землетрясений позволяет разрабатывать более эффективные подходы к обеспечению сейсмобезопасности населения за счет снижения инженерно-сейсмического риска.

  • Бугаев Е.Г., Кишкина С.Б. Структура геодинамических (разломных) зон, скорость деформации и их связь с сейсмичностью
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 235–243

    На примере геодинамических и сейсмических условий района Ростовской АЭС рассмотрено моделирование прогнозных пределов и прогнозных графиков повторяемости для разных условий деформирования с учетом структуры и скорости деформации геодинамических зон. Достоверность результатов моделирования контролируется наблюденными графиками повторяемости магнитуд рассматриваемого района и районов проявления катастрофических землетрясений. Результаты моделирования рекомендуется рассматривать при разработке превентивных мер по снижению последствий катастрофических землетрясений.

  • Санина И.А., Иванченко Г.Н., Горбунова Э.М. Анализ геолого-структурных условий района Мариупольского землетрясения
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 243–251

    На основе комплексного анализа геолого-геофизических условий и сейсмогеологических данных определены основные сейсмогенерирующие структуры – Малоянисольский, Кальмиуский и Приморский разломы, ограничивающие блок, в пределах которого сосредоточены очаги землетрясения 07.08.2016 г. и 12 афтершоков, установленных методом кросс-корреляции волновых волн по ближайшим сейсмическим группам. Эпицентры основного толчка и большинства афтершоков приурочены к субмеридиональной Кальчикской линеаментной зоне, выделенной в осевой части сейсмоблока.

  • Иванченко Г.Н., Кишкина С.Б., Локтев Д.Н. Геодинамические условия региона расположения Ростовской АЭС
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 251–260

    В работе рассмотрена геодинамическая обстановка региона расположения Ростовской АЭС с позиций оценки неотектонической активности территории и её связи с сейсмичностью. Использованы собственные и литературные данные, а также результаты полевых сейсмических наблюдений, проводимых малоапертурной группой ИДГ РАН в 2016 году. Использована оценка вертикальных плиоцен-четвертичных деформаций методом стратиграфических и геоморфологических реперных поверхностей; отмечено отсутствие новообразованных плиоцен-четвертичных нарушений и важное значение реактивации древних структур, в том числе контролирующих положение Кряжа Карпинского.

  • Остапчук А.А., Горбунова Э.М., Ружич В.В., Григорьева А.В., Ефремов В.В. Минералогические и механические свойства пород зоны интенсивных деформаций приморского разлома Байкальской рифтовой зоны
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 260–266

    В работе представлены первые результаты исследований образцов пород, отобранных из зоны влияния разрывного нарушения, направленных на определение корреляционных связей между структурными свойствами образцов пород на микро- и мезоуровне и их механическими свойствами при сдвиговом деформировании. Участок работ расположен в зоне влияния Приморского разлома Байкальской рифтовой зоны, на левом борту долины реки Бугульдейка в месте впадения в озеро Байкал. Предварительный анализ микроструктуры шлифов отобранных образцов показал, что интенсивные сдвиговые деформации локализуются в узкой зоне, в которой отчетливо прослеживаются признаки динамического воздействия на минералы в процессе тектонического проскальзывания. В результате лабораторных исследований механических свойств на установке «слайдер»-модели установлено, что реализация определенного режима (стабильное и/или прерывистое) скольжения определяется не столько прочностью породы, сколько преобразованием её структуры на мезоуровне при контактном метаморфизме.

  • Павлов Д.В., Куликов В.И., Марков В.К., Остапчук А.А., Седоченко В.В. . Проявление нелинейности деформационных характеристик регионального разлома
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 266–274

    Приведены результаты сейсмического и деформационного мониторинга регионального разлома, проводимого на глубине 300 м от свободной поверхности в подземных выработках шахты, добывающей железную руду. В качестве источников для сейсмопросвечивания разлома используются массовые взрывы на шахте. Показано, что в области малых деформаций 10-8 – 10-7 нормальная жесткость нарушения сплошности проявляет нелинейность – с увеличением амплитуды воздействия на порядок, нормальная жесткость разлома снижается более, чем на порядок.

  • Адушкин В.В., Рыбнов Ю.С., Спивак А.А., Харламов В.А. Оценка энергии источников инфразвуковых возмущений в атмосфере по спектру волновых форм
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 416–427

    Обобщен опыт определения энергии источников инфразвуковых возмущений в атмосфере по спектру волновых форм в диапазоне частот 0,003÷0,3 Гц. Показано, что спектры сигналов от источников различной мощности отличаются значением преимущественной частоты. Представлена феноменологическая модель распространения акустических волн в атмосфере со стандартной стратификацией скорости звука, позволяющая оценивать зависимость характерной частоты от энергии источника. Выполненные с помощью модели расчеты характерной частоты сигнала при распространения инфразвуковых колебаний от мощных источников в стандартном стратосферном волноводе хорошо согласуется с результатами наблюдений.

  • Ермак В.М., Гаврилов Б.Г., Поклад Ю.В., Ряховский И.А. Возмущение среднеширотной ионосферы во время солнечного затмения 20 марта 2015 года
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 427–431

    В работе рассмотрено влияние полного солнечного затмения 20 марта 2015 года на ионосферу по данным измерения в Геофизической обсерватории «Михнево» параметров сигналов СДВ радиостанций на трассах, проходящих через зону затмения. Для контроля изменений в верхней ионосфере использовались данные по вариациям полного электронного содержания ионосферы по данным двухчастотного навигационного приемника.

  • Беккер С.З. Уточнение исходных параметров детерминированно-вероятностной модели D-области ионосферы и сопоставление результатов радиофизических расчетов с экспериментальными данными
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 438–442

    Рассматриваются новые методы уточнения детерминированно-вероятностной модели ионосферы на примере D-области. Сравниваются плотности вероятности входных параметров, рассчитанные в 2014 и 2017 гг. Обсуждаются плюсы и минусы усовершенствованной модели, и предложены новые способы повышения ее точности.

  • Адушкин В.В., Кудрявцев В.П. Триггерные эффекты при эмиссии метана в полярной зоне
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 449–456

    Проведённый анализ наземных, морских и спутниковых измерений потоков метана в Арктике показал, что увеличение эмиссии метана из таких резервуаров захороненного метана, как метановые газогидраты, зоны вечной мерзлоты, северных болот может заметно превысить мощность антропогенных источников. При этом вклад парникового эффекта от работы положительных обратных связей может оказаться сравнимым или даже превысить антропогенный вклад в арктической зоне. Модельные расчеты показали, что изменения концентраций метана, воды, гидроксила и озона в условиях повышения эмиссии метана приводят к возникновению положительной обратной связи с потеплением в районе выбросов. Включение при повышении температуры, механизмов по высвобождению метана из естественных резервуаров приводит к еще большему накоплению метана в атмосфере и большему потеплению. При этом увеличение эмиссии антропогенных источников нужно рассматриваться, как своеобразный спусковой крючок, который запускает значительно более мощные процессы.

  • Соловьев А.В., Рыбнов Ю.С., Семениченко А.А. Генерация волновых возмущений бризово-долинной циркуляцией в системе о. Байкал – Тункинская долина
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 456–460

    Приводятся данные натурных измерений акустико-гравитационных волн в системе о. Байкал–Тункинская долина. Анализ проведенных измерений показал, что сочетание сложного рельефа долины и температурного градиента между водной поверхностью и землей является причиной развития бризово-долинной циркуляции. Рассмотрен механизм генерации акустико-гравитационных волн. Определены условия возникновения генерации, обусловленные движением воздушных масс от о. Байкал в сторону долины.

  • Карташова А.П., Рыбнов Ю.С., Глазачев Д.О., Попова О.П., Болгова Г.Т. Изучение метеорных явлений по комбинированным наблюдениям
    Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах: материалы IV-й Всероссийской конференции с международным участием «Триггерные эффекты в геосистемах», 2017 , p. 483–489

    Взаимодействие метеорных тел с атмосферой приводит к генерации как оптического (метеоры), так и акустического (импульсы давления) излучения. Большинство метеорных частиц не достигают земной поверхности, и их свойства (масса, размер и т.д.) оцениваются по данным наблюдений с использованием целого ряда предположений и моделей взаимодействия с большой неопределенностью. Одновременные комбинированные наблюдения метеоров позволят сопоставить оценки параметров метеороидов, полученные по разным наблюдательным данным, уточнить модели взаимодействия частиц с атмосферой. В статье рассказывается о результатах комбинированных (оптических и акустических) метеорных наблюдений, организованных Институтом астрономии РАН (ИНАСАН) и Институтом динамики геосфер РАН (ИДГ РАН).

  • Краснощеков Н.Д., Овчинников В.М. Об использовании метода максимума правдоподобия для оценки скачка плотности на границе между внешним и внутренним ядром
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 10–16

    В статье приведены результаты оценки скачка плотности на границе внутреннего ядра Земли различными методами по двум группам измерений на эпицентральных расстояниях от 11 до 24 градусов. Сравнение полученных оценок скачка плотности с модельными кривыми показывает, что расширение набора данных за счёт использования амплитуды шума на интервале ожидаемого вступления PKiKP, даёт заметное снижение результирующих оценок. Показано, что оценки, полученные методом максимального правдоподобия, дают величину скачка плотности в диапазоне 0.3–0.6 г/см3. В то время как оценка только по средним значениям обнаруженных волновых форм PKiKP и РсР даёт значения порядка 0.6–0.9 г/см3.

  • Кочарян Г.Г., Батухтин И.В. О моделировании процесса скольжения по разлому
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 16–25

    Наилучшим результатом моделирования процесса скольжения по разлому является установление таких макроскопических параметров, контролирующих деформационный процесс, которые могут быть измерены в натурных условиях. Представляется, что наилучшим кандидатом на эту роль является динамическая жесткость разломной зоны. Эксперименты последних лет показывают, что величина этого параметра радикально снижается в процессе перехода разломной зоны в метастабильное состояние, определяет тип скольжения по разлому и может быть оценена активными и пассивными сейсмическими методами. При этом критерием подобия при лабораторном и численном моделировании является сохранение величины отношения жесткости нарушения сплошности к жесткости вмещающего массива.

  • Иванов Б.А. Нелинейные свойства горных пород: влияние на законы подобия для ударных кратеров
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 25–32

    Классическая задача об образовании кратера на поверхности полупространства анализируется методами численного моделирования для случая «реальных» уравнений состояния (УС) Тиллотсона и ANEOS. Выбрана простейшая модель прочности – сухое трение, ограниченное переходом от хрупкого к пластическому пределу прочности с уменьшением прочности при повышенных температурах. Показано, что такая модель прочности разрушает традиционный подход к построению законов подобия, требуя построения более сложной зависимости от скорости удара.

  • Иванченко Г.Н., Малкин Б.В. Оценка неотектонических деформаций в районе Курской АЭС
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 32–42

    Работа посвящена количественной оценке амплитуды вертикальных неотектонических деформаций стратиграфическим методом в пределах западного склона Воронежской антеклизы Восточно-Европейской платформы (ВЕП) с учётом колебаний уровня мирового океана, калиброванных на реперах ВЕП. На примере западного склона Воронежской антеклизы показано, что абсолютные неотектонические деформации различных кайнозойских реперных уровней не превышают по амплитуде первые десятки метров и связаны с инверсионными восходящими движениями на северном борту Днепровской впадины. В то же время верхнемеловые пострифтовые опускания, оцененные по туронскому реперу в южной части исследуемого района, остаются некомпенсированными. В целом, рассматриваемый регион можно охарактеризовать как неотектонически стабильный.

  • Беседина А.Н., Батухтин И.В., Остапчук А.А. Анализ параметров микросейсмических колебаний центральной части Восточно-Европейской платформы
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 42–49

    В работе проведен анализ записей микросейсмического шума в диапазоне высоких частот на территории Восточно-Европейской платформы, которая характеризуется мощными отложениями рыхлых осадочных пород, а также высоким уровнем антропогенных помех. С помощью кросс-корреляции сейсмических шумов показано, что для группы «Михнево» характерно присутствие как объемных, так и поверхностных волн. Для группы «Ростов» основной вклад в микросейсмический шум вносят поверхностные источники, обусловленные влиянием вблизи расположенного водохранилища.

  • Кишкина С.Б., Краснощеков Д.Н., Волосов С.Г., Иванченко Г.Н., Константиновская Н.Л., Локтев Д.Н., Нестеркина М.А., Ризниченко О.Ю., Санина И.А. Временные сейсмологические наблюдения в районе Ростовской АЭС
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 49–59

    Приведены основные результаты сейсмического мониторинга площадки Ростовской АЭС, проведенного малоапертурной группой ИДГ РАН в 2016 году. Описаны условия размещения, характеристика аппаратуры и конфигурация группы. Чувствительность группы в конкретных условиях установки обеспечивала регистрацию сейсмических событий с магнитудой 3 на расстояниях до 300 км; с магнитудой 1 на расстоянии 60 км от центрального датчика группы. Показано, что детальный анализ слабой сейсмичности с помощью малоапертурной группы возможен, но требует длительных наблюдений.

  • Горбунова Э.М., Виноградов Е.А., Беседина А.Н., Свинцов И.С. Исследование анизотропии фильтрационных свойств флюидонасыщенного коллектора по данным прецизионного гидрогеологического мониторинга
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 59–68

    В статье рассматриваются скачкообразные изменения уровня безнапорного водоносного горизонта, приуроченного к карбонатному коллектору трещинно-порового типа, которые не связаны с техногенными помехами и градиентом атмосферного давления. Выделенные подъемы и снижения уровня с амплитудами до 28 мм приурочены преимущественно к границам зон интенсивной трещиноватости водовмещающих пород и подтверждают наличие магистральных микротрещин. Полученные данные использованы для анализа анизотропии фильтрационной свойств флюидонасыщенного коллектора.

  • Архипов Я.Д., Барышников Н.А., Зенченко Е.В., Турунтаев С.Б. Изменение фильтрационных свойств малопроницаемых пористых сред под воздействием внешней нагрузки
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 68–75

    В процессе добычи углеводородов в прискважинном пространстве пласта возникают различного рода напряжения и деформации, которые оказывают значительное влияние на его фильтрационные свойства. Цель исследования состояла в изучении зависимости фильтрационных свойств низкопроницаемой пористой породы от приложенного внешнего давления. Была проведена серия опытов по измерению проницаемости модельных образцов керна при различных давлениях обжатия, результаты эксперимента сопоставлены с существующими моделями стресс-зависимой проницаемости. Показано что на основании сопоставления модели с данными опыта можно судить о структуре порового пространства и характере проницаемости.

  • Беляков Г.В., Таирова А.А. Измерение газодинамических параметров в щели при абляции ее стенок
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 75–80

    Экспериментальной моделью сланцевого пласта выбран углеводородный материал – полиметилметакрилат (оргстекло). В экспериментальной модели разрыв сланцевого пласта имитировался щелью, организованной в оргстекле. Щель продувалась потоком газа. Скорость потока измерялась опытным путем. Зафиксированы значения скоростей потока, испарение и унос массы материала с поверхности щели.

  • Вощан О.Н., Спивак А.А. Вариации электрического поля в приземной атмосфере в результате прохождения холодных атмосферных фронтов
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 80–88

    Приведены результаты анализа совместных вариаций электрического поля и метеопараметров атмосферы при прохождении холодных атмосферных фронтов по данным Геофизической обсерватории (ГФО) «Михнево» и Центра геофизического мониторинга г. Москвы ИДГ РАН за период наблюдений с 2010 по 2016 гг. Получена эмпирическая зависимость между амплитудой вариаций напряженности электрического поля, изменением и скоростью изменения температуры в результате прохождения атмосферного фронта в отсутствие сильной облачности и грозовых явлений. Разработана эмпирическая модель влияния холодных атмосферных фронтов на вариации электрического поля. Модель предполагает изменение пространственного распределения электрических зарядов в приземном слое атмосферы в результате интенсификации движения воздушных масс в переходной зоне атмосферного фронта.

  • Спивак А.А., Рыбнов Ю.С., Харламов В.А. Вариации геофизических полей в период ураганов и шквалов в Москве
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 88–94

    Выполнен комплексный анализ микробарических пульсаций, вариаций электрического поля и микросейсмического фона в условиях г. Москвы в период сильных возмущений атмосферы. Показано, что ураганы и шквалы сопровождаются не только высокими скоростями ветра, но также высокоамплитудными микробарическими вариациями, вариациями амплитуд микросейсмического фона и вертикальной компоненты электрического поля. Установлено, что рассматриваемые сильные возмущения атмосферы за 1–4 часа предваряются повышенными амплитудами микробарических вариаций в диапазоне частот Брента-Вяйсаля, а также низкочастотными вариациями электрического поля и вариациями микросейсмического фона в диапазоне частот 0.008–20 Гц, что в совокупности с метеорологическими параметрами можно рассматривать в качестве комплексного прогностического признака приближающегося урагана (шквала). Такой подход может повысить надежность и оперативность прогноза.

  • Сергеев В.Н. Радиогенное тепло Земли в период ее роста
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 94–99

    Приведены оценки количества тепла Земли, выделяемого в период ее роста (первые 100 млн лет существования) при радиоактивном распаде короткоживущих 26Al, 60Fe и долгоживущих 238U, 235U, 232Th, 40K. Оценки проведены для двух наиболее правдоподобных групп моделей состава Земли: геохимической (за основу взят состав углистых хондритов) и космохимической (основа – состав энстатитовых хондритов).

  • Лосева Т.В., Голубь А.П., Косарев И.Б., Ляхов А.Н., Поклад Ю.В., Гаврилов Б.Г., Зецер Ю.И., Черменин А.В. Начальная стадия развития плазменной струи в активных геофизических ракетных экспериментах
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 102–110

    Представлены результаты численного моделирования начальной стадии разлета плазменной струи с параметрами, аналогичными активным экспериментам КУМУЛЮС и ФЛАКСУС. Рабочее вещество плазмы и кинематические характеристики плазменной струи определяются конструкцией и параметрами генератора ВГПС-1 ИДГ РАН. Параметры среды соответствуют земной атмосфере на высотах 80 и 140 км. Впервые выполнена оценка влияния процессов переноса излучения на параметры расширяющегося плазменного образования на стадии инжекции. Показано, что перенос излучения значительно изменяет характеристики воздушной плазмы и его необходимо учитывать при интерпретации экспериментальных данных.

  • Косарев И.Б. Радиационные свойства алюминиевой плазмы
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 110–116

    На основе данных из современных литературных источников и собственных квантовомеханических расчетов составлен банк данных по спектроскопическим характеристикам компонент алюминиевой плазмы в широком диапазоне величин газодинамических параметров. Рассчитаны таблицы коэффициентов поглощения, групповые и полные росселандовы и планковские пробеги излучения в диапазоне плотностей от 10-5 до 100 кг/м3 и температур от 0.3 до 50 кК. Составленные таблицы радиационных свойств алюминиевой плазмы использовались при численном моделировании активных геофизических экспериментов с выбросом горячей алюминиевой струи в ионосфере.

  • Ковалев А.Т., Ковалева И.Х. Роль малых добавок и процессов перезарядки в формировании плазменного облака в активных геофизических ракетных ионосферных экспериментах
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 116–124

    В работе предложена и обосновывается гипотеза, объясняющая сильное различие в степени ионизации высокоскоростной плазменной струи при инжекции в разреженную ионосферу и в искусственное воздушное облако в эксперименте «Северная звезда». Подчеркивается роль малых примесей (молекул и кластеров воды, продуктов их диссоциации) и ультрафиолетового излучения плазменной струи в предварительной ионизации фона. Основным механизмом поддержания высокой степени ионизации струи может оказаться обмен зарядом между нейтральным алюминием струи и заряженными частицами фона. Высокая скорость струи обеспечивает близость сечения обмена зарядом к максимуму сечения нерезонансной перезарядки.

  • Гончаров Е.С., Ляхов А.Н., Лосева Т.В. О возможности верификации моделей нижней ионосферы по наблюдениям шумановских резонансов
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 124–130

    В статье предложен метод верификации прогностических моделей нижней ионосферы по данным регистрации собственных частот Шумановских резонансов и их сопоставлению с расчетными данными. Расчеты собственных частот выполняются в трехмерной геометрии с неоднородным заполнением волновода земля-ионосфера слабоионизованной столкновительной плазмой. Представлены результаты для двух различных моделей нижней ионосферы для спокойных геофизических условий.

  • Поклад Ю.В., Гаврилов Б.Г., Ермак В.М., Ряховский И.А., Гончаров Е.С., Ляхов А.Н., Лосева Т.В., Корсунская Ю.А. Анализ влияния солнечных рентгеновских вспышек на параметры Шумановского резонатора
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 130–136

    В работе представлены результаты мониторинга собственных частот Шумановского резонатора в ГФО «Михнево» во время солнечных рентгеновских вспышек Х-класса в сентябре 2017 года. Две вспышки (Х8.3 и Х9.4) имели близкую продолжительность, различаясь по энергии в 2 раза. Сдвиг собственных частот резонатора был зарегистрирован только в одном случае. Полученные результаты и их сравнение с теоретическими моделями показали необходимость учета в прогностических моделях не только балла (мощности) вспышки, но и ее интегральной энергетики.

  • Кузьмичева М.Ю., Ряховский И.А., Поклад Ю.В., Гаврилов Б.Г. Влияние геометрических факторов и алгоритмов обработки данных на ошибки позиционирования ГНСС в ГФО «Михнево»
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 136–144

    В статье представлены результаты анализа алгоритмов решения навигационной задачи в условиях регистрации сигналов глобальных навигационных спутниковых систем GPS и ГЛОНАСС в ГФО «Михнево». Показано, что в классическом алгоритме выбор спутников из наблюдаемого созвездия должен вестись не по критерию высоты над горизонтом, а по числу обусловленности матрицы навигационной задачи. Применение адаптивных итерационных алгоритмов позволяет практически полностью компенсировать геофизические возмущения при сохранении двухчастотного режима. Предложена модификация штатного алгоритма позиционирования в ГНСС.

  • Ковалева И.Х., Ляхов А.Н., Ряховский И.А. Фрактальные свойства среднеширотных мелкомасштабных ионосферных неоднородностей по данным регистрации сигналов GPS в ГФО «Михнево»
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 144–150

    В работе анализируются разбросы (ошибки) в оценке на основе экспериментальных данных по трём частотам показателей степени флуктуационного спектра. Расхождения в оценках по парам частот объясняются различными путями прохождения ионосферы сигналами на разных частотах. Временные зависимости этих разбросов отражают пространственно-временные неоднородности флуктуаций, не описываемые степенными спектрами турбулентности. Проведённый фрактальный анализ данных ошибок позволяет выявить характерные масштабы и ориентацию тех структур ,которые формируют ионосферный спектр флуктуаций, генерирующих ошибки GPS связи.

  • Черменин А.В., Ляхов А.Н. Влияние изменения геомагнитного поля на рабочие частоты КВ-радиолиний
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 150–154

    В статье представлены результаты численного моделирования максимально применимых частот КВ диапазона в условиях изменения геомагнитного поля. Возмущения ионосферы, вызванные изменением геомагнитного поля, сказываются на распространении КВ радиоволн в Восточно-Сибирском секторе РФ. Наиболее критичными результатами являются: изменение интервалов доступности для работы в моде 1F2 и изменение частотных диапазонов для мод слоя Е, во многом определяющих помеховую обстановку в КВ диапазоне. Эффект хорошо наблюдается при сильно возмущённых условиях (Kp=7) и остаётся заметен даже при Kp=4 на длинных трассах, проходящих через Арктическую область.

  • Галактионов И.В., Кудряшов А.В., Мар Г.Н., Никитин А.Н., Самаркин В.В., Шелдакова Ю.В. Фокусировка рассеянного лазерного излучения методами адаптивной оптики
    Динамические процессы в геосферах. Вып. 9: сб. научн тр. ИДГ РАН, 2017 , p. 154–159

    Проведено экспериментальное исследование возможности фокусировки лазерного излучения с длиной волны 0.65 мкм сквозь рассеивающую суспензию полистироловых микросфер диаметром 1 мкм, взвешенных в дистиллированной воде, с использованием биморфного адаптивного зеркала. Для измерения локальных наклонов вектора Пойнтинга рассеянного излучения применялся датчик Шака-Гартмана, интенсивность и размер фокального пятна в дальней зоне регистрировались с использованием ПЗС-камеры. Выполнен сравнительный анализ эффективности фокусировки рассеянного лазерного пучка с использованием 3 методик: минимизации смещений фокальных пятен на датчике Шака-Гартмана, оптимизации фокуса алгоритмом «восхождения на холм» с использованием датчика Шака-Гартмана и оптимизации фокуса алгоритмом «восхождения на холм» по интенсивности фокального пятна в дальней зоне.

  • Adushkin V., Kozlov S., Veniaminov S., Doronin A., Silnikov M. Natural and technogeneous contamination of near-earth space
    Acta Astronautica, 2017, vol. 135 , p. 6–9

  • Б.Г. Гаврилов, Ю.И. Зецер, А.Н. Ляхов, Ю.В. Поклад, И.А. Ряховский . Пространственно-временные распределения электронной плотности в ионосфере по данным регистрации полного электронного содержания и фазы ОНЧ радиосигналов
    Геомагнетизм и аэрономия, 2017, vol. 57 , p. 500-509

    Путем сопоставления данных измерения полного электронного содержания ионосферы с фазовыми и амплитудными измерениями сигналов СДВ-ДВ-радиостанций на глобальных и региональных трассах исследуются особенности структуры и динамики ионосферной плазмы. Проведена реконструкция структуры ионосферы над территорией Европы. По результатам реконструкции выполнены исследования пространственно-временной динамики перемещающихся ионосферных возмущений для условий мощной геомагнитной бури 17 марта 2015 г. Анализ изменения фаз СДВ-радиосигналов совместно с данными измерения ПЭС является не только дополнительным инструментом для изучения динамики ионосферных возмущений, но и позволяет судить о возмущениях электронной плотности в различных слоях ионосферы.

  • Б.Г. Гаврилов, Ю.И. Зецер, А.Н. Ляхов, Ю.В. Поклад, И.А. Ряховский Пространственно-временные распределения электронной плотности в ионосфере по данным регистрации полного электронного содержания и фазы ОНЧ радиосигналов
    Геомагнетизм и аэрономия, 2017, vol. 57 , p. 500-509

    Путем сопоставления данных измерения полного электронного содержания ионосферы с фазовыми и амплитудными измерениями сигналов СДВ-ДВ-радиостанций на глобальных и региональных трассах исследуются особенности структуры и динамики ионосферной плазмы. Проведена реконструкция структуры ионосферы над территорией Европы. По результатам реконструкции выполнены исследования пространственно-временной динамики перемещающихся ионосферных возмущений для условий мощной геомагнитной бури 17 марта 2015 г. Анализ изменения фаз СДВ-радиосигналов совместно с данными измерения ПЭС является не только дополнительным инструментом для изучения динамики ионосферных возмущений, но и позволяет судить о возмущениях электронной плотности в различных слоях ионосферы.

  • Ряховский И.А., Гаврилов Б.Г., Зецер Ю.И., Ляхов А.Н., Поклад Ю.В., Беккер С.З. Исследование пространственно-временных характеристик ионосферных неоднородностей при помощи трехбазной сети приемников ГНСС
    Международная Байкальская молодежная научная школа по фундаментальной физике. Тезисы докладов XV Конференции молодых ученых, 2017 , p. 92-93

    По современным представлениям на точность позиционирования ГНСС наибольшее влияние оказывают ионосферные неоднородности с характерными размерами от 100 м БШФФ-2017. Секция D. Физика атмосферы 93 до нескольких километров. Разработанная нами методика, использующая пространственно-разнесенные приемники ГНСС на трех базах от 250 м до 80 км, позволяет исследовать пространственно-временное распределение локальных ионосферных неоднородностей в среднеширотной ионосфере. Представлены результаты для бури в ионосфере 17 марта 2015 г.

  • Ляхов А.Н., Козлов С.И., Беккер С.З. Сравнительный анализ системы APERS (США) и отечественной системы Росгидромет прогноза ионосферы и радио связи
    Сборник тезисов Двенадцатой ежегодной конференции «Физика плазмы в солнечной системе», 2017 , p. 140

  • G.G. Kocharyan, V.A. Novikov, A.A. Ostapchuk and D.V. Pavlov A study of different fault slip modes governed by the gouge material composition in laboratory experiments
    Geophysical Journal International, 2017, vol. 208, No. 1, p. 521-528

    Described are results of laboratory experiments which revealed regularities of gradual transition from stick-slip mode to aseismic creep. The behaviour of model gouge-filled fault was investigated with experimental setup of the spring-bock model. It was experimentally proven that small variations of a percentage of materials with velocity strengthening and velocity weakening properties in the fault principal slip zone may result in significant variation of the portion of seismic energy radiated during a fault slip event. The tests simulated different modes of interblock sliding whose characteristic values of scaled kinetic energy varied by several orders of magnitude, while differences in contact strength and shear stress drop remained relatively small. The obtained results led to the conclusion that the earthquake radiation efficiency and the fault slip mode are governed by the ratio of two parameters—maximum fault slip-weakening rate and shear stiffness of the enclosing massif. The ratio can be essentially changed by small variations of the material composition of the fault principal slip zone.

  • Г.Г. Кочарян, А.А. Остапчук, В.С. Мартынов Изменение режима деформирования разлома в результате инжекции флюида
    Физико-технические проблемы разработки полезных ископаемых, 2017 , No. 2, p. 20-28

    В статье приведены первые результаты экспериментов, направленных на исследование влияния инжекции флюида на режим деформирования межблокового контакта. Судя по полученным результатам, инжекция флюида может как снизить долю энергии деформирования, идущей на излучение сейсмической волны, так и увеличить ее. Наиболее эффективным является инжекция в контактную зону дилатантной жидкости, вязкость которой увеличивается с ростом скорости деформирования. При этом, в лабораторном эксперименте динамические срывы были подавлены не сразу после инжекции, а спустя один цикл деформирования. Полученные результаты, прежде всего, демонстрируют перспективность проведения дальнейших исследований в этом направлении.

  • Усольцева О.А., Козловская Е.Г. . Землетрясение на балтийском щите 19.03.2016 MB=3.7
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2017 , No. 8, p. 60-69

Прочие публикации

  • Остапчук А.А., Салтыков Н.В., Мартынов В.С. Изменение кинематических параметров скольжения модельного разлома при медленных и быстрых деформационных событиях
    Физическая мезомеханика, 2017, vol. 20, No. 6, p. 29-39

    В статье представлены результаты лабораторных экспериментов, в которых исследовались различные режимы деформирования модельного разлома. В ходе экспериментов были смоделированы как эпизоды скольжения с большой скоростью, соответствующие в натуре обычным землетрясениям, так и медленное скольжение – аналог низкочастотных землетрясений и событий медленного скольжения. Детально исследован процесс подготовки деформационных событий различного типа и выявлены характерные стадии данного процесса. Показано, что изменение кинематических параметров разлома описывается законом эволюции, единым для всех режимов скольжения. Полученные результаты подтверждают ранее высказанный тезис о единой природе деформационных событий различного типа от асейсмического крипа до обычных землетрясений. Анализ полученных результатов позволяет сделать вывод, что макроскопическим параметром, контролирующим деформационный процесс, является сдвиговая жесткость разлома. Для оценки величины и закономерностей изменения сдвиговой жесткости in situ могут быть использованы сейсмические методы.

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в базу реферативной информации Web of Science, Scopus

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в базу реферативной информации Web of Science, Scopus

  • Gerke K.M., Karsanina M.V. Improving stochastic reconstructions by weighing correlation functions in an objective function
    EPL (Europhysics Letters), 2015 , p. 0295-5075

  • V.V. Adushkin, I.O. Kitov, N.L. Konstantinovskaya, K.S. Nepeina, M.A. Nesterkina, I.A. Sanina Detection of Ultraweak Signals on the Mikhnevo Small-Aperture Seismic Array by Using Cross-Correlation of Waveforms
    Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2015, vol. 460 , p. 189–191

  • В.В. Адушкин, И.О. Китов, Н.Л. Константиновская, К.С. Непеина, М.А. Нестеркина, И.А. Санина Обнаружение сверхслабых сигналов на малоапертурной сейсмической антенне “Михнево” с помощью кросскорреляции волновых форм
    ДАН, 2015, vol. 460, No. 6, p. 707–709

  • И.П. Башилов, С.Г. Волосов, С.А. Королёв, В.А. Меркулов, В.М. Овчинников, О.В. Овчинникова Сравнительный анализ характеристик широкополосного сейсмоприёмника с емкостным преобразователем с зарубежными аналогами
    Сейсмические приборы, 2015, vol. 51, No. 4, p. 5-21

  • G.G. Kocharyan, A.A. Ostapchuk The influence of viscosity of thin fluid films on the frictional interaction mechanism of rock blocks
    Doklady Earth Sciences 463, 2015 , No. 1, p. 757-759

  • Adushkin, V. V.; Chen, B. B.; Popel, S. I.; Weidler PG,; Imashev, SA; Losseva, TV; Sverdlik, LG; Friedrich, F. Radiative forcing of aerosols in Central Asia
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES Том: 460 Выпуск: 2 Стр, 2015, vol. 460 , p. 137-141

  • Losseva, T. V.; Spivak, A. A.; Kuz'micheva, M. Yu. Geomagnetic variations due to changes in the hydrological regime of a fracture zone
    DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES Том: 463 Выпуск: 2 Стр, 2015, vol. 463 , p. 839-841

  • Gerke K.M., Korost D.V., Vasilyev R.V., Karsanina M.V., Tarasovsky V.P. Studying structure and determining effective properties of materials using X-ray microtomography data (using permeable porous ceramics as an example)
    Inorganic Materials, 2015 , p. 951-957

    Modern noninvasive methods for probing the three-dimensional structure of materials, such as X-ray tomography, make it possible not only to obtain precise data on the structure of a sample but also to use them for assessing effective properties of the material by numerical methods. We have studied the pore structure of three samples of permeable porous ceramics by X-ray microtomography and numerically determined the permeability by solving the Stokes equation in the three-dimensional geometry of the pore structure. The data thus obtained are in excellent agreement with results of laboratory measurements. Morphological analysis of the pore structure (pore size distribution) allowed us to explain the results obtained for three samples of ceramics produced from granules of various sizes and shapes.

  • Gerke K.M., Sidle R.C., Mallants D. Preferential flow mechanisms identified from staining experiments in forested hillslopes
    Hydrological Processes, 2015 , p. 4562-4578

    Field staining experiments in five different plots at two sites in Japan (Okaya in Nagano Prefecture and Konohara in Mie Prefecture) were undertaken to improve understanding of subsurface stormflow runoff within organic layers of natural forested hillslopes. This type of shallow lateral subsurface flow, specifically referred to as biomat flow, was observed only at the Okaya site based on staining experiments conducted under controlled water application rates. When the same irrigation rate (50–100 mm h−1) was applied to the Konohara site, overland flow without a significant shallow subsurface component was the dominant flow mechanism. Even in gently sloping (15–20°) forest soils at the Okaya site, biomat flow was responsible for lateral dye transport over much longer distances than subsurface flow in the matrix of mineral soil layers. Based on analysis of staining pattern images observed in the Okaya site, we conclude that (i) the organic biomat layer could be divided into two sub-layers of different structure, (ii) biomat flow transported the dye tracer longer distances than subsurface flow in the matrix and (iii) the biomat layer topography affected biomat flow by generating preferential flowpaths and subsequent percolation into the deeper soil. Based on field experimental results and pore-scale consideration of water infiltration into pores of soils with varying wettability properties, we hypothesized and developed a conceptual model for two key biomat flow mechanisms. The first mechanism considers lateral subsurface flow because of a permeability contrast between the much more porous and hence permeable biomat layer and the underlying mineral soil. The second mechanism involves a hydrophobic soil layer between the biomat and the underlying mineral soil. Flow across the hydrophobic layer is believed to occur when a threshold pore pressure is exceeded, i.e. as a result of a perched water table within the biomat layer. Lower pore pressures are needed to initiate flow when preferential flow paths exist, which are less hydrophobic than the surrounding organic layers. Numerical models of catchment hydrology should include lateral biomat flow when such layers are present in hillslope soils, in addition to typical subsurface flow within the soil matrix.

  • Vesely M., Bultreys T., Peksa M., Lang J., Cnudde V., van Hoorebeke L., Kocirik M., Hejtmanek V., Solcova O., Soukup K., Gerke K.M., Stallmach F., Capek P. Prediction and evaluation of time-dependent effective self-diffusivity of water and other effective transport properties associated with reconstructed solids
    Transport in Porous Media, 2015 , p. 81-111

    We reconstructed pore structures of three porous solids that differ from each other in morphology and topology of pore space. To achieve this, we used a stochastic method based on simulated annealing and X-ray computed microtomography. Simulated annealing was constrained by the following microstructural descriptors sampled along the principal and diagonal directions: the two-point probability function for the void phase and the lineal-path functions for both void and solid phases. The stochastic method also assumed the isotropic pore structures in accordance with a recent paper (Čapek et al. in Transp Porous Media 88(1): 87–106 (2011)). With the exception of the solid with the widest pores, we made tomographic volume images in high and low resolution, which enabled us to study the effect of resolution on microstructural descriptors and effective transport properties. A comparison of the two-point probability function and the lineal-path function sampled in the principal directions revealed that the pore structures derived from the tomographic volume images were slightly anisotropic, in opposition to the assumption of the stochastic method. Besides the anisotropy, other microstructural descriptors including the pore-size function and the total fraction of percolating cells indicated that the morphological and topological characteristics of the pore structures depended on the reconstruction method and its parameters. Particularly, the pore structures reproduced using the stochastic method contained wider pores than those obtained using X-ray tomography. Deviations between the pore structures derived from low- and high-resolution tomographic volume images were also observed and imputed to partial volume artefacts. Then, viscous flow of incompressible liquid, ordinary diffusion, Knudsen flow and self-diffusion of water in the reconstructed pore spaces were simulated. As counterparts, experimental data were measured by means of permeation and Wicke–Kallenbach cells and pulsed field gradient NMR. Deviations between the simulated quantities on the one hand and experimental data on the other hand were generally acceptable, which corroborated the pore-space models. As expected, the predictions based on the tomographic models of pore space were more successful than those derived from the stochastic models. The stationary effective transport properties, i.e. the effective permeability, the effective pore size and the geometric factor, were sensitive to a bias in long-range pore connectivity. Furthermore, the time-dependent effective diffusivity was found to be especially sensitive to relatively small morphological deviations between the real and reconstructed pore structures. It is concluded that the combined predictions of the effective permeability, the effective pore size, the geometric factor and time-dependent effective self-diffusivity of water are needed for the reliable evaluation of pore-space reconstruction.

  • Gavrilov, BG; Zetser, YI Ryakhovskii, IA; Poklad, YV; Ermak, VM. Remote sensing of ELF/VLF radiation induced in experiments on artificial modification of the ionosphere
    Geomagnetism and aeronomy, 2015 , No. 4, p. 450-456

    In 2012, remote measurements of electromagnetic signals in the ELF/VLF band were taken at different points in Russia during experiments on artificial ionospheric modification with the powerful HF wave at the EISCAT heating facility (Tromsø, Norway). The use of the new, highly sensitive magnetometric equipment allowed signals with an amplitude of a few femtoteslas to be recorded at a distance of up to 2000 km from the source. Analysis of the measurement results discovered substantial differences in the amplitude-phase characteristics of the signals, which were caused by a change in helio-geophysical conditions in the region of heating and along the signal passage route, and features of signal propagation, which are related to their mode of guided propagation, the directivity of the source, and angles of reception.

  • Гаврилов Б.Г., Зецер Ю.И., Ряховский И.А., Поклад Ю.В., Ермак В.М. Удаленная регистрация КНЧ/ОНЧ излучения, вызванного экспериментами по искусственной модификации ионосферы
    Геомагнетизм и аэрономия, 2015, vol. 55, No. 4, p. 466

    В 2012 г. при проведении экспериментов по искусственной модификации ионосферы мощной КВ волной на нагревном стенде EISCAT-Heating (Тромсе, Норвегия) были проведены дистанционные измерения электромагнитных сигналов КНЧ/ОНЧ диапазона в различных точках России. Использование новой высокочувствительной магнитометрической аппаратуры позволило зарегистрировать сигналы амплитудой в единицы фемтотесла на расстояниях до 2000 км от источника. Анализ результатов измерений выявил значительные различия амплитудно-фазовых характеристик сигналов, обусловленные изменением гелиогеофизических условий в районе нагрева и на трассе распространения сигнала, и особенности распространения сигналов, связанные с их модовым волноводным распространением, направленностью источника, углами приема.

  • Spivak, A.A. A tribological model of a seismomagnetic effect in a heterogeneous medium
    Doklady earth sciences, 2015, vol. 465 , p. 1151-1153

    A phenomenological model of generation of magnetic signals under the deformation of a shattered rock in the body of a fault zone resulting from seismic pulse action is proposed. It is assumed that the geomagnetic variations appear at a change in the conductivity of the fragmented rocks at the boundaries of the joints. It is shown that the amplitudes of geomagnetic variations calculated based on the model are consistent with the data of the instrumental observations.

  • Спивак А.А. Трибологическая модель сейсмомагнитного эффекта в структурно неоднородной среде
    ДАН, 2015, vol. 465, No. 1, p. 96-98

    Предложена феноменологическая модель генерации магнитных сигналов при деформировании дробленой горной породы в теле разломной зоны в результате воздействия сейсмическим импульсом. Предполагается, что геомагнитные вариации возникают при изменении электрической проводимости фрагментированных горных пород на контактах отдельностей. Показано, что рассчитанные по модели амплитуды геомагнитных вариаций соответствуют данным инструментальных наблюдений

  • G.G. Kocharyan, A.A. Ostapchuk Acoustic emission during different-type inter-block movements
    JMS 51(1), 2015 , p. 1-9

    The article reports the lab experimentation on seismic/acoustic emission during different-type inter-block movements of rock mass. The fact that co-seismic displacement under induced earthquakes occurs along the existing interfaces is the basis for relatively simple tests on a slip-model plant. Using different materials as fracture fillers allowed modeling entire range of probable deformation modes. The deformation modes are conditionally grouped as creep or steady-state slip, unsteady-state slip and regular discontinuous slip or stick-slip. The authors show that statistics of acoustic emission during slip is described using the Gutenberg–Richter law. The strongest “representative” events under shearing occur quasiregularly, with probability much higher than follows from G–R law. The functional relation is found between the acoustic emission energy and the shear velocity.

  • Кочарян Г.Г., Остапчук А.А. Акустическая эмиссия при различных режимах межблоковых перемещений
    ФТПРПИ, 2015 , No. 1, p. 3-13

    Представлены результаты лабораторных экспериментов, в которых исследован сейсмоакустический эффект, наблюдаемый при различных режимах смещения по границам между блоками горной породы. Тот факт, что косейсмические перемещения при техногенных землетрясениях происходят по существующим границам раздела, служит основанием относительно простой постановки экспериментов на установке “слайдер”–модели. Использование различных материалов в качестве заполнителя трещины позволило смоделировать весь спектр возможных деформационных режимов. Последние, с известной долей условности, можно разделить на три группы. Первая — крип, или стабильное скольжение; вторая — нестабильное скольжение; третья — регулярное прерывистое скольжение, или стик–слип. Показано, что статистика акустических событий, излучаемых в процессе скольжения, описывается распределением Гутенберга—Рихтера. При этом наиболее крупные “характеристические” события при сдвиге происходят квазирегулярно с вероятностью значительно выше, чем следует из закона повторяемости. Установлена функциональная связь между потоком излученной энергии акустической эмиссии (АЭ) и скоростью деформации нарушения сплошности.

  • Г.Г. Кочарян, А.А. Остапчук, Д.В. Павлов, В.В. Ружич, И.В. Батухтин, Е.А. Виноградов, А.М. Камай, В.К. Марков Экспериментальное исследование различных режимов скольжения блоков по границе раздела. Часть 2. Полевые эксперименты и феноменологическая модель явления
    Физическая мезомеханика, 2015, vol. 18, No. 6, p. 75-85

    Представлены результаты натурных экспериментов, в которых исследовались различные режимы гравитационного соскальзывания блока по естественной поверхности разлома. Использование в качестве заполнителя межблокового контакта различных материалов позволило реализовать весь спектр деформационных событий. Последние можно условно разделить на три группы: ускоренный крип, медленные подвижки, динамический срыв. В экспериментах показано, что тип деформационных событий, которые могут быть реализованы, определяется как структурными параметрами межблокового контакта, так и вещественным составом его заполнителя. Разработаны основы новой геомеханической модели возникновения динамических событий разного типа. В основе модели лежит представление о том, что в процессе сдвигового деформирования субнормально к берегам трещины образуются «контактные пятна» - кластеры силовых мезоструктур, эволюция которых определяет режим деформирования. Пространственная конфигурация «контактных пятен» сохраняется на протяжении всего цикла «нагружение - срыв» и перестраивается в результате динамического события. Разрушенные силовые мезоструктуры способны замещаться аналогичными образованиями под влиянием сил межгранулярного взаимодействия, когда внешнее воздействие будет полностью скомпенсировано. До тех пор пока «контактные пятна» разрушены не полностью, динамика деформационного процесса определяется их реологией. При деформировании трещины, заполненной неоднородным материалом, миграция «контактных пятен» приводит не только к изменению параметров деформирования, но и к трансформации самого режима вследствие изменения реологии локальных участков межблокового контакта. С использованием фрактального анализа установлено, что для зарождения динамических срывов необходимо формирование пространственно-структурированных «контактных пятен», характеризующихся малой фрактальной размерностью; а события медленного скольжения могут существовать лишь в определенной параметрической области, названной нами «купол медленных событий». Установлено, что вероятность формирования медленных подвижек выше на участках разломов, характеризующихся максимальными значениями фрактальной размерности: в окончаниях разломов, в зонах их ветвления и взаимного пересечения.

  • Г.Г. Кочарян, В.А. Новиков. Экспериментальное исследование различных режимов скольжения блоков по границе раздела. Часть 1. Лабораторные эксперименты
    Физическая мезомеханика 2015, 2015, vol. 18, No. 4, p. 94-104

    Статья является первой частью экспериментальной работы, в которой изучались законо-мерности формирования различных режимов деформирования нарушений сплошности горных пород в лабораторных и полевых условиях. В лабораторных экспериментах изучены условия возникновения различных режимов скольжения для нескольких типов нару-шений - контактов прочных поверхностей, трещин, заполненных кварцевым песком, тальком и глиной. Используемый набор материалов и характеристики экспериментальной установки позволили реализовать в опытах широкий спектр режимов сдвигового деформирования - от динамических срывов с максимальной скоростью в десятки мм/с, до стабильного скольжения со скоростью 1 мкм/с. Радикальное изменение поведения трещины с глиносодержащим заполнителем происходит при ее обводнении. Длительность подвижки значительно возрастает тем в большей степени, чем выше содержание глины. Движение блока имеет длительную фазу (~100 с) плавного увеличения скорости смещения и фазу торможения примерно той же длительности. При этом скорость смещения снижается до нескольких десятков мкм/с. Как до начала перемещения блока, так на всех фазах его движения вплоть до полной остановки процесс происходит без излучения акустической эмиссии в пределах чувствительности аппаратуры. Показано, что медленные движения обладают всеми фазами, характерными для прерывистого скольжения, - разгоном, длительным скольжением, торможением, остановкой и фазой состояния покоя. Проведенные лабораторные эксперименты подтверждают ранее высказанный тезис о том, что все типы деформационных процессов в земной коре формируют единый ряд явлений.

  • Будков А.М., Кочарян Г.Г., Остапчук А.А., Павлов Д.В Влияние жесткости нарушений сплошности породного массива на излучательную эффективность очагов индуцированной сейсмичности. Ч.II: Лабораторные и численные эксперименты
    ФТРПРИ 6, 2015 , p. 28-34

    Вариации прочности породы и различия в напряженном состоянии массива не могут объ-яснить наблюдаемой разницы в эффективности излучения сейсмических волн отдельными событиями, расположенными в пределах одного горнодобывающего предприятия. Выполненные лабораторные и численные эксперименты показали, что при несущественных изменениях предельной прочности трещины различие в сдвиговой жесткости приводит к радикальному изменению КПД сейсмического события. Полученные в лабораторном эксперименте соотношения между ключевыми параметрами необходимо учитывать при построении геомеханических моделей натурных объектов

  • Кочарян Г.Г., Остапчук А.А. Влияние вязкости тонких пленок флюида на закономерности фрикционного взаимодействия блоков горной породы /
    ДАН, 2015 , p. 343-346

    В статье представлены результаты лабораторных экспериментов, в которых обнаружен новый эффект радикального изменения режима сдвигового деформирования трещины при переходе определенного предела вязкости тонких пленок флюида, смачивающего поверхности частиц материала- заполнителя.

  • Besedina A.N., Vinogradov E.A., Gorbunova E.M., et al. The Response of Fluid-Saturated Reservoirs to Lunisolar Tides: Part 1. Background Parameters of Tidal Components in Ground Displacements and Groundwater Level
    Izvestiya, 2015, vol. 51, No. 1, p. 70-79

    The first part of this work is dedicated to the response of different-age structures to lunisolar tides, which can be considered as a sounding signal for monitoring the state of fluid-saturated reservoirs. The complex approach to processing the data obtained at the testing sites of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geophysics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, and KIEV station of the IRIS seismic network is applied for recognizing the tides against the hydrogeological, barometric, and seismic series. The comparative analysis of the experimental and theoretical values of the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal components in the time series of ground displacements is carried out. The tidal variations in the groundwater level are compared with the tidal components revealed in the ground displacement of the different-age structure of the Moscow Basin and Ukrainian Shield, which are parts of the East European artesian region. The differences in the tidal responses of the groundwater level and ground displacement probably suggest that the state of the massif is affected by certain additional factors associated, e.g., with the passage of earthquake-induced seismic waves and the changes in the hydrogeodynamic environment.

  • Беседина А.Н., Виноградов Е.А., Горбунова Э.М., и др. Отклик флюидонасыщенных коллекторов на лунно-солнечные приливы. Часть 1. Фоновые параметры приливных компонент в смещении грунта и уровне подземных вод
    Физика Земли, 2015 , No. 1, p. 1-10

    В первой части данной работы исследован отклик разновозрастных структур на лунно-солнечные приливы, которые могут рассматриваться в качестве зондирующего сигнала для мониторинга состояния флюидонасыщенных коллекторов. Для выделения приливов из гидрогеологических, барометрических и сейсмических рядов применен комплексный подход к обработке данных, полученных на полигонах Института динамики геосфер РАН, Института геофизики НАН Украины и станции KIEV сейсмической сети IRIS. Выполнен сравнительный анализ экспериментальных и теоретических значений суточных и полусуточных приливных компонент в смещении грунта. Вариации приливов в уровне подземных вод сопоставлены с приливными компонентами, прослеженными в смещении грунта разновозрастных структур Московского и Украинского массивов, входящих в состав Восточно-Европейской артезианской области. Различие в откликах на приливы в уровне подземных вод и смещении грунта, вероятно, свидетельствует о влиянии дополнительных факторов на состояние массива, связанных, в частности, с прохождением сейсмических волн от землетрясений и изменением гидрогеодинамической обстановки

  • A.N. Besedina, S.B. Kishkina, G.G. Kocharyan Effect of Deformation Properties of Discontinuities on Sources of Mining-Induced Seismicity in Rocks. Part I: In Situ Observations
    Journal of Mining Science, 2015, vol. 51 , p. 707-718

    The authors analyze mine logs of seismic events in Poland, Finland, Canada, Russia and South Africa. For the analyzed events, induced seismic energy varies by 2-3 orders of magnitude at the same value of seismic moment. The upper and lower limits of the range correspond to “hard” and “tender” sources, respectively. The most probable cause of the wide scatter of the reduced energy values seems to be fluctuating properties of discontinuities due to change in material composition of fracture filler and in water content of rocks.

  • Беседина А.Н., Кишкина С.Б., Кочарян Г.Г. Влияние деформационных характеристик нарушений сплошности породного массива на эффективность излучения очагов индуцированной сейсмичности. Ч. I. Результаты натурных наблюдений
    ФТПРПИ, 2015 , No. 4, p. 83-95

    Проанализированы каталоги сейсмических событий рудников Польши, Финляндии, Канады, России и Южной Африки при ведении горных работ. Оказалось, что для рассмотренных событий приведенная сейсмическая энергия может изменяться на 2 - 3 порядка при одном и том же значении сейсмического момента. Верхняя граница диапазона соответствует “жестким”, а нижняя - “мягким” очагам. Наиболее вероятной причиной столь большого разброса значений приведенной энергии представляется вариация свойств нарушений сплошности, связанная с изменением вещественного состава материала-заполнителя трещин и обводненности массива.

  • Yu.E. Lavrukhin , O.V. Rumyantsev , A.P. Borisov , D.S. Grozdov , S.A. Korolev Monitoring of 214Pb AND 214Bi Activity with the Askro Spectrometric Channel
    Atomic Energy, 2015, vol. 118 , p. 431-435

    The possibility of using the ASKRO spectrometric channel for monitoring the volumetric activity of the products of decay of radon 214Pb and 214Bi in the atmospheric boundary layer during precipitation is examined. The sensitivity of the spectrometer with respect to 214Pb and 214Bi in a measurement geometry determined using as the standard 1 mg 226Ra was equal to 0.015 ± 0.005 and 0.018 ± 0.006 m3/(Bq•sec), respectively, for confidence probability P = 0.95. According to the spectrometric measurements the total washout coefficient for 214Pb and 214Bi from clouds was equal to (1.1–5)•105. The role of radon and its decay products in the formation of rain drops is found to be very small.

  • Лаврухин Ю.Е., Румянцев О.В., Борисов А.П., Гроздов Д.С., Королёв С.А Мониторинг активности природных 214Pb и 214Bi спектрометрическим каналом АСКРО
    Атомная энергия, 2015, vol. 118, No. 6, p. 345-350

    Рассмотрена возможность использования спектрометрического канала АСКРО для мониторинга в приземном слое атмосферы при выпадении осадков объемной активности продуктов распада радона 214Pb и 214Bi. Чувствительность спектрометра по 214Pb и 214Bi в геометрии измерения, определенная с использованием эталона 1 мг 226Ra, составила 0,015 ± 0,005 и 0,018 ± 0,006 м 3/(Бк-с) соответственно для доверительной вероятности Р ═ 0,95. Суммарный коэффициент вымывания 214Pb и 214Bi из облака по результатам спектрометрических измерений составил (1,1-5)10 5. Роль радона и продуктов его распада в образовании капель дождя оценивается как незначительная

  • D. Bobrov, I. Kitov, L. Zerbo Perspectives of Cross-Correlation in Seismic Monitoring at the International Data Centre
    Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2015, vol. 171 , p. 439-468

    We demonstrate that several techniques based on waveform cross-correlation are able to significantly reduce the detection threshold of seismic sources worldwide and to improve the reliability of arrivals by a more accurate estimation of their defining parameters. A master event and the events it can find using waveform cross-correlation at array stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) have to be close. For the purposes of the International Data Centre (IDC), one can use the spatial closeness of the master and slave events in order to construct a new automatic processing pipeline: all qualified arrivals detected using cross-correlation are associated with events matching the current IDC event definition criteria (EDC) in a local association procedure. Considering the repeating character of global seismicity, more than 90 % of events in the reviewed event bulletin (REB) can be built in this automatic processing. Due to the reduced detection threshold, waveform cross-correlation may increase the number of valid REB events by a factor of 1.5–2.0. Therefore, the new pipeline may produce a more comprehensive bulletin than the current pipeline—the goal of seismic monitoring. The analysts’ experience with the cross correlation event list (XSEL) shows that the workload of interactive processing might be reduced by a factor of two or even more. Since cross-correlation produces a comprehensive list of detections for a given master event, no additional arrivals from primary stations are expected to be associated with the XSEL events. The number of false alarms, relative to the number of events rejected from the standard event list 3 (SEL3) in the current interactive processing—can also be reduced by the use of several powerful filters. The principal filter is the difference between the arrival times of the master and newly built events at three or more primary stations, which should lie in a narrow range of a few seconds. In this study, one event at a distance of about 2,000 km from the main shock was formed by three stations, with the stations and both events on the same great circle. Such spurious events are rejected by checking consistency between detections at stations at different back azimuths from the source region. Two additional effective pre-filters are f–k analysis and F prob based on correlation traces instead of original waveforms. Overall, waveform cross-correlation is able to improve the REB completeness, to reduce the workload related to IDC interactive analysis, and to provide a precise tool for quality check for both arrivals and events. Some major improvements in automatic and interactive processing achieved by cross-correlation are illustrated using an aftershock sequence from a large continental earthquake. Exploring this sequence, we describe schematically the next steps for the development of a pro-cessing pipeline parallel to the existing IDC one in order to improve the quality of the REB to-gether with the reduction of the magnitude threshold.

  • P.B. Kaazik, D. N. Krasnoshchekov, V.M. Ovtchinnikov An Anisotropic Block in the Inner Core Beneath Southern Asia
    Doklady of Earth Sciences, 2015, vol. 465, No. 1, p. 1147-1150

    This work presents new experimental data on differential amplitudes and travel times tBC_tDF of the PKPDF and PKPBC seismic waves in the Earth’s core beneath Southeastern Asia. In the equatorial paths, this area has a higher (by approximately 0.3%) velocity of propagation of seismic waves than in the standard model ak135. The features of the travel time residuals in the polar path indicate the presence of a local block of 250 Å~ 250 Å~ 200 km in size, for which the velocity value depends on the direction of propagation of the P _wave and is higher by 1.4% than in the model ak135. Attenuation of seismic waves in this block also depends on the direc-tion: it is two times higher for the polar direction than for the equatorial direction. These two factors indicate that this structure is characterized by features transverse isotropy, and anisotropy in the eastern hemisphere has a domain character.

  • П.Б.Каазик, Д.Н.Краснощеков, В.М. Овчинников Анизотропный блок во внутреннем ядре под Юго-Восточной Азией
    ДАН, 2015, vol. 465, No. 1, p. 91-96

    В работе представлены новые экспериментальные данные о дифференциальных амплитудах и временах пробега tBC-tDF сейсмических волн PKPDF и PKРВС в земном ядре под Юго-Восточной Азией. Показано, что рассматриваемая область на экваториальных трассах имеет более высокую, примерно на 0.3%, скорость распространения сейсмических волн, чем в стандартной модели ak135. Особенности невязок времен пробега на полярных трассах указывают на существование локального объема 250 х 250 х 200 км, в котором величина скорости зависит от направления распространения продольной волны и на 1.4% больше, чем в модели ak135. Затухание сейсмических волн в этом объеме также зависит от направления прихода: для полярного направления затухание в два раза выше, чем для экваториального. Эти два фактора позволяют сделать вывод, что обнаруженная структура имеет особенности, присущие поперечно-изотропным средам, и анизотропия в восточном полушарии носит блоковый (доменный) характер.

  • Д.И. Бобров, И.О. Китов, М.В. Рожков, П. Фрайберг К глобальному сейсмическому мониторингу подземных ядерных взрывов с использованием кросс-корреляции волновых форм. Часть II. Синтетические мастер-события
    Сейсмические приборы, 2015, vol. 51, No. 3, p. 22-46

    Кросс-корреляция волновых форм является эффективным инструментом обнаружения и оценки характеристик сейсмических сигналов. Для целей Договора о всеобъемлющем запрещении ядерных испытаний использование кросс- корреляции может привести к глобальному снижению порога обнаружения на 0.3–0.4 единицы магнитуды. Успех метода в значительной степени зависит от наличия мастер- событий. В части I этой статьи показано, что в сейсмически активных регионах лучшие мастер- события (гранд- мастера), размноженные по узлам регулярной сетки, позволяют повысить эффективность обнаружения сейсмических сигналов и их источников. В сейсмически пассивных районах возможны два подхода к созданию глобальной сетки мастер- событий для сейсмических станций Международной системы мониторинга: размножение сигналов от гранд- мастеров и создание синтетических шаблонных сейсмограмм. Эффективность синтетических шаблонов зависит от точности предсказания формы и амплитуды сигналов, которая контролируются глубиной очага, механизмом и функцией источника, а также распределением скорости и затухания вдоль пути распространения. Мы тестируем синтетические сейсмограммы, полученные для трех механизмов источника: взрыв, надвиг, а также CMT- решение Гарварда для одно-го из афтершоков землетрясения вблизи Суматры 11 апреля 2012 г., и для двух моделей скорости: ak135 и CRUST2.0. Шестнадцать синтетических мастер- событий были распределены по сетке 1х1, которая покрывала зону афтершоков. Было построено пять кросс-корреляционных стандартных списков событий (XSEL). Вступления и события в этих бюллетенях сравнивались с теми, что получены с использованием реальных и гранд-мастер событий, а также с событиями в официальном бюллетене Международного центра данных (Reviewed Event Bulletin). Бюллетени XSEL на основе синтетических шаблонов, рассчитанных с использованием скоростной модели ak135 и функций источника взрыва и надвига с изотропной диаграммой направленности, похожи на бюллетени, построенные реальными и гранд- мастерами. Основным результатом исследования является количественное доказательство возможности охватить все асейсмичные области синтетическими мастер- событиями без потери в эффективности сейсмического мониторинга на основе кросс- корреляции.

  • Д.И. Бобров, И.О. Китов, М.В. Рожков, П. Фрайберг К глобальному сейсмическому мониторингу подземных ядерных взрывов с использованием кросс-корреляции волновых форм. Часть I. Гранд-мастер события
    Сейсмические приборы, 2015, vol. 51, No. 2, p. 5-30

    Предлагается использовать метод кросс- корреляции волновых форм в целях сейсмического мониторинга Договора о всеобъемлющем запрещении ядерных испытаний ( ДВЗЯИ), доказав возможность построения глобальной сетки мастер- событий с шаблонными сигналами на станциях Международной системы мониторинга ( МСМ). В пределах сейсмически актив ных регионов очевиден выбор наиболее качественных и представительных записей от землетрясений в качестве шаблонов мастер- событий, что позволяет снизить амплитудный порог обнаружения в Международном центре данных ( МЦД) в 2–3 раза. Такое снижение порогового значения практически удваивает количество обнаруживаемых событий, что имеет решающее значение для сейсмического мониторинга в рамках ДВЗЯИ. Однако охват земного шара реальными мастер- событиями ограничен теми областями, где имеется природная сейсмичность. В данной работе, состоящей из двух частей, мы исследуем возможность заполнения глобальной сетки реальными и синтетическими мастер- событиями. В первой части мы оцениваем эффективность работы кросс-корреляции при использовании регулярной сетки, заполненной “ гранд- мастер” ( ГМ) событиями, шаблонные волновые формы которых являются точными копиями сигналов от мастер- событий высокого качества. Во второй части мы создаем и тестируем синтетические шаблоны сигналов для сейсмически малоактивных областей. Эффективность обоих подходов подвергается количественной проверке на последовательности афтершоков землетрясения на Суматре, произошедшего 11 апреля 2012 г. Ранее нами был создан бюллетень событий, использующих кросс- корреляцию с шестнадцатью реальными мастер- событиями, который является естественной точкой отсчета для оценки эффективности копирования сигналов от мастер- событий и синтетических шаблонных волновых форм. В части I нами установлено, что точные копии ГМ демонстрируют порог обнаружения на уровне реальных мастер-событий, то есть снижают порог обнаружения в 2–3 раза по сравнению с нынешней системой обработки в МЦД. Использование в МСМ сейсмических групп позволяет повысить разрешающую способность системы сейсмического мониторинга с помощью кросс-корреляции.

  • Kitov I.O., Sanina I.A., Nepeina K.S. и др. Using a Matched-Filter Technique at the Mikhnevo Small-Aperture Seismic Array
    Seismic instruments, 2015, vol. 51, No. 3, p. 191-200

    The Mikhnevo small-aperture array (SAA) was designed as an instrument for various regional seismic studies, including the compilation of a detailed catalogue of industrial blasts in the East European craton. This array includes 12 observation points arranged in three circles and equipped with SM3-KV shortperiod seismometers. The Institute of Geospheres Dynamics launched the array in 2004, and since that time it has been detecting up to 1000 industrial blasts per year. The Mikhnevo SAA uses beam formation for array processing. The stacking of indi-vidual waveforms reduced to a reference point allows the suppression of microseismic noise and improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) relative to a three-component station. An improved SNR for a given signal is equivalent to a reduced detection threshold: much weaker signals can be detected with the use of a beam-formation technique. In turn, much more signals from small industrial explosions are detected. Weak signals are difficult to identify because of the higher uncertainty in the estimates of such characteristics as azimuth, slowness, and amplitude. Having a ten-year catalog of industrial blasts and the archive of raw digital records for this period, we apply a waveform cross-correlation (matched filter) technique, which has an extremely high relative location accuracy and thus identification capability. We have created a set of master events with relevant waveform templates for automatic data processing and creation of an accurate catalogue of industrial blasts.

  • I.O. Kitov , S.G. Volosov , S.B. Kishkina et al. Detection of regional phases of seismic body waves using an array of three-component sensors
    Seismic Instruments, 2015, vol. 52 , p. 19-31

    A small-aperture seismic array consisting of seven three-component seismometers carried out continuous measurements of regional seismicity in a selected area of the Nizhni Novgorod nu-clear power plant during four months of 2013. Automatic signal detection using beamforming was applied separately for each motion component. Two horizontal components were trans-formed into radial and transverse components for the given values of the velocity and azimuth of the plane wave front. We have investigated the dependence of the coherence of microseismic noise on frequency, azimuth, and slowness, as well as determining the level of cross-correlation between signals on separate channels in order to estimate expected improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio, which is crucial for signal detection. Most signals detected by the seismic array from regional sources are associated with quarry blasts. Using repetitive explosions at seven quarries, we have quantitatively estimated and compared the increase in detection efficiency of regional seismic phases using a three-component small aperture seismic array and a subarray of vertical sensors. Horizontal sensors showed a higher efficiency in the detection of transverse waves, while the subarray of vertical sensors missed S-waves from certain events. For one of the nearby quarries, the vertical subarray missed up to 25% of events (5 of 20). The results of the investigation point to the need for the use of three-component seismic arrays for the study of regional seismicity.

  • И.О. Китов, С.Г. Волосов, С.Б. Кишкина и др. Обнаружение региональных фаз объемных сейсмических волн с помощью группы трехкомпонентных датчиков
    Сейсмические приборы, 2015, vol. 51, No. 1, p. 27-45

    Малоапертурная сейсмическая группа (МСГ), состоящая из семи трехкомпонентных сейсмометров, в течение четырех месяцев 2013 г. осуществляла режимные наблюдения региональной сейсмичности в районе выбранной площадки Нижегородской атомной станции. Автоматическое обнаружение сигнала с помощью метода регулируемого направленного приема применялось для каждой компоненты движения отдельно, причем две горизонтальные компоненты преобразовывались в радиальную и трансверсальную компоненты для заданных значений скорости и азимута фронта плоской волны. Для оценки ожидаемого увеличения отношения сигнал/шум, что имеет определяющее значение для обнаружения сигнала, мы исследовали зависимость когерентности микросейсмического шума от частоты, азимута и медленности, а также определили уровень взаимной корреляции сигналов на отдельных каналах. Основной поток сигналов, зарегистрированных сейсмической группой от региональных источников, связан с карьерными взрывами. Используя повторяющиеся взрывы на семи карьерах, мы количественно оценили рост эффективности обнаружения региональных сейсмических фаз с помощью трехкомпонентной МСГ по сравнению с подгруппой вертикальных датчиков. Горизонтальные датчики показали более высокую эффективность в обнаружении поперечных волн, в то время как подгруппа вертикальных датчиков пропускала S-волны от некоторых событий. Для одного из ближних карьеров вертикальная подгруппа пропускала до 25 % событий (5 из 20). Результаты работы указывают на необходимость использования трехкомпонентных сейсмических групп для исследования региональной сейсмичности.

  • Адушкин В.В., Чен Б.Б., Попель С.И., Вайдлер П.Г., Имашев С.А., Лосева Т.В., Свердлик Л.Г., Фридрих Ф Радиационный форсинг аэрозолей Центральной Азии
    Доклады Академии наук, 2015, vol. 460, No. 4, p. 459

    Приведены результаты исследований, характеризующих роль и радиационные проявления мелкомасштабного аэрозоля над регионом Центральной Азии.

  • Лосева Т.В., Спивак А.А., Кузьмичева М.Ю. Геомагнитные вариации при изменении гидрогеологического режима в зоне разлома
    Доклады академии наук, 2015, vol. 463, No. 5, p. 598–601

    Предложена численная модель влияния уровня подземных вод на геомагнитные вариации на поверхности земной коры при наличии вертикальной неоднородности в виде разломной зоны. Предполагается, что эффект связан с изменением электродинамических характеристик приповерхностного слоя грунта в результате сезонных вариаций мощности безнапорного водоносного горизонта. В результате численного 3D-моделирования процесса показано, что при определенном выборе параметров задачи изменение уровня подземных вод в безнапорном горизонте вызывает синхронные вариации магнитного типпера с амплитудой, соответствующей значениям, полученным в результате инструментальных наблюдений.

  • Svetsov V.V., Shuvalov V.V. Water delivery to the Moon by asteroidal and cometary impacts
    2015, 2015, vol. 117 , p. 444-452

    Recent spacecraft missions detected presence of hydroxyl or water over large areas on the lunar surface. Several craters near the lunar poles have increased concentrations of hydrogen suggest-ing impact delivery of water. Using a numerical model, we have carried out computer simula-tions of the impacts of asteroids and comets in order to estimate the fate of water that can be contained in the projectiles. We find that at impact velocities below ~10 km/s a significant fraction of a stony projectile remains in the crater and is heated to temperatures below 1000 K. At these velocities hydrated minerals contained in carbonaceous projectiles decompose only partly. We conclude that the impacts of water-bearing carbonaceous asteroids could produce deposits of free and chemically bound water inside some lunar craters. The relative number of these craters may reach several percent. In contrast to asteroids, water from cometary impacts, even at low velocities, is vaporized, and vapor plume expands and disperses over the lunar surface.

  • Consolmagno, G.J.; Golabek, G.J.; Turrini, D.; Jutzi, M.; Sirono, S.; Svetsov, V.; Tsiganis, K. Is Vesta an intact and pristine protoplanet?
    2015, 2015, vol. 254 , p. 190-201

    It is difficult to find a Vesta model of iron core, pyroxene and olivine-rich mantle, and HED crust that can match the joint constraints of (a) Vesta’s density and core size as reported by the Dawn spacecraft team; (b) the chemical trends of the HED meteorites, including the depletion of sodium, the FeO abundance, and the trace element enrichments; and (c) the absence of exposed mantle material on Vesta’s surface, among Vestoid asteroids, or in our collection of basaltic meteorites. These conclusions are based entirely on mass-balance and density arguments, independent of any particular formation scenario for the HED meteorites themselves. We suggest that Vesta either formed from source material with non-chondritic composition or underwent after its formation a radical physical alteration, possibly caused by collisional processes, that affected its global composition and interior structure.

  • Prem P., N.A. Artemieva, D.B. Goldstein, P.L. Varghese, L.M. Trafton Transport of water in a transient impact-generated lunar atmosphere
    2015, 2015 , p. 148-158

    In recent decades, several missions have detected signs of water and other volatiles in cold, per-manently shadowed craters near the lunar poles. Observations suggest that some of these vola-tiles could have been delivered by comet impacts and therefore, understanding the impact delivery mechanism becomes key to explaining the origin and distribution of lunar water. During impact, the constituent ices of a comet nucleus vaporize; a significant part of this vapor remains gravitationally bound to the Moon, transforming the tenuous, collisionless lunar exosphere into a collisionally thick, transient atmosphere. Here, we use numerical simulations to investigate the physical processes governing volatile transport in the transient atmosphere generated after a comet impact, with a focus on how these processes influence the accumulation of water in polar cold traps. It is observed that the transient atmosphere maintains a certain characteristic structure for at least several Earth days after impact, during which time volatile transport occurs primarily through low-altitude winds that sweep over the lunar day-side. Meanwhile, reconvergence of vapor antipodal to the point of impact results in preferential redistribution of water in the vicinity of the antipode. Due to the quantity of vapor that remains gravitationally bound, the atmosphere is sufficiently dense that lower layers are shielded from photodestruction, prolonging the lifetime of water molecules and allowing greater amounts of water to reach cold traps. Short-term ice deposition patterns are markedly non-uniform and the variations that arise in simulated volatile abundance between different cold traps could potentially explain variations that have been observed through remote sensing.

  • Lorenz C., Ivanova M., Artemieva N. et al. Formation of a small impact structure discovered within the Agoudal meteorite strewn field
    2015, 2015 , p. 112-134

    A relic impact structure was recognized within the strewn field of the Agoudal iron meteorite. The heavily eroded structure has preserved shatter cones in a limestone basement, and remnants of autochthonous and allochthonous breccias. Fragments of iron incorporated into the allochthonous breccia have a chemical composition (Ni = 5.16 wt%, Ir = 0.019 ppm) similar to that of the Agoudal meteorite, supporting a syngenetic origin of the strewn field and the impact structure. The total recovered mass of Agoudal meteorite fragments is estimated at approximately 500 kg. The estimated size of the SE–NW-oriented strewn field is 6 × 2 km. Model calculations with minimal preatmospheric size show that a similar meteorite strewn field plus one small crater with observed shock effects could be formed by fragmentation of a meteoroid approximately 1.4 m in diameter with an impact angle of approximately 60° from the horizontal. However, the most probable is an impact of a larger, 3–4 m diameter meteoroid, resulting a strewn field with approximately 10 craters, 10–30 m in diameter each, plus numerous meteorite fragments. The calculated scattering area of meteorite shrapnel ejected from these impact craters could completely cover the observed strewn field of the Agoudal meteorite.

  • Belcher CM., Hadden RM., Rein G., Morgan JV., Artemieva N., Goldin TJ. An experimental assessment of the ignition of forest fuels by the thermal pulse generated by the Cretaceous–Palaeogene impact at Chicxulub
    Journal of Geological Society, 2015 , p. 175-185

    A large extraterrestrial body hit the Yucat.n Peninsula at the end of the Cretaceous period. Models suggest that a substantial amount of thermal radiation was delivered to the Earth’s surface by the impact, leading to the suggestion that it was capable of igniting extensive wildfires and contributed to the end-Cretaceous extinctions. We have reproduced in the laboratory the most intense impact-induced heat fluxes estimated to have reached different points on the Earth’s surface using a fire propagation apparatus and investigated the ignition potential of forest fuels. The experiments indicate that dry litter can ignite, but live fuels typically do not, suggesting that any ignition caused by impact-induced thermal radiation would have been strongly regional dependent. The intense, but short-lived, pulse downrange and at proximal and intermediate distances from the impact is insufficient to ignite live fuel. However, the less intense but longer-lasting thermal pulse at distal locations may have ignited areas of live fuels. Because plants and ecosystems are generally resistant to single localized fire events, we conclude that any fires ignited by impact-induced thermal radiation cannot be directly responsible for plant extinctions, implying that heat stress is only part of the end-Cretaceous story.

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

  • Христофоров Б.Д. Моделирование взрывных процессов у поверхности Солнца при вспышках
    Академический журнал Западной Сибири, 2015, vol. 11, No. 3, p. 83-86

  • Е.Г. Бугаев, С.Б. Кишкина, И.Н. Сеелев Формализация оценки фоновых пара-метров сейсмического режима площадок глубинного захоронения радиоактивных отходов по сейсмологическим и геологическим данным
    Вопросы инженерной сейсмологии, 2015, vol. 42, No. 4, p. 15-24

  • Куликов В.И., Белин В.А., Ганопольский М.И. Оценка допустимого для людей уровня вибрации, вызванной промышленными взрывами
    Взрывное дело, 2015 , No. 114, p. 216-224

  • Свинцов И.С., Беседина А.Н., Виноградов Е.А., Горбунова Э.М., Кабыченко Н.В. Характеристика состояния флюидонасыщенного коллектора по данным прецизионного мониторинга уровня подземных вод
    Горный информационно-аналитический бюллетень/ 2015, 2015 , No. 8, p. 158-165

  • Каазик П.Б., Краснощеков Д.Н., Овчинников В.М., Усольцева О.А. О ЗАТУХАНИИ СЕЙСМИЧЕСКИХ ВОЛН В ЛОКАЛЬНОЙ ОБЛАСТИ ВНУТРЕННЕГО ЯДРА ПОД ЮГО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ АЗИЕЙ
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 197-208

    Свойства сейсмических волн, зондирующих внутреннее ядро, показывают, что оно является анизотропным: волны, распространяющиеся параллельно оси вращения Земли имеют более высокую скорость распространения и большее затухание, чем на трассах, параллельных экваториальной плоскости. В настоящей работе исследуется анизотропия в затухании сейсмических волн PKPDF в диапазоне частот 0.2-1.2 Гц в локальной области внутреннего ядра под Юго-Восточной Азией на глубинах до 350 км от границы с внешним ядром для сейсмических лучей разной ориентации. На экваториальных трассах зависимость дифференциальных амплитуд PKPBC и PKPDF от частоты почти линейная, в то время как на полярных наблюдается нелинейная зависимость от частоты, что указывает на анизотропию поглощения и различную текстуру среды.

  • Косарев И.Б. МОДЕРНИЗАЦИЯ ТАБЛИЦ РАДИАЦИОННЫХ СВОЙСТВ ГОРЯЧЕГО ВОЗДУХА
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 167-176

    Проведена модернизация таблиц радиационных свойств воздушной плазмы. На основе данных из современных литературных источников и собственных квантовомеханических расчетов составлен банк данных по спектроскопическим характеристикам компонент плазмы воздуха в широком диапазоне величин газодинамических параметров. В расчетах вероятностей радиационных переходов применялись методы самосогласованного поля Хартри-Фока, метод случайных фаз с обменом и др. Учтен ряд электронно-колебательных полос молекулярного азота и окиси азота, дающих значительный вклад в мощность излучения в ультрафиолетовой и инфракрасной областях спектра. Ранее в известных таблицах радиационных свойств воздуха [Авилова, Биберман и др., 1970; Каменщиков, Пластинин, 1971] эти полосы не учитывались.

  • Корсунская Ю.А. Влияние жесткого рентгеновского и гамма излучений солнца на ионосферу земли и другие процессы в геосферах. Часть 1.
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 122-133

    В работе выполнен анализ данных по потокам жесткого рентгеновского и гамма излучения Солнца измеренных на спутниках GOES и RHESSI, а также данных о распространении радиоволн в СДВ и КВ диапазонов. Проведен их сравнительный анализ и сделано заключение о сильном влиянии жесткой части солнечного спектра, относящейся к области энергий квантов более 10кэВ, на формирование ионосферы Земли.

  • Иванченко Г.И. ГЕОМОРФОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ МЕТОДЫ В РЕГИОНАЛЬНЫХ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯХ НЕОТЕКТОНИКИ (на примере Скифской плиты и юга Восточно-Европейской платформы)
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 76-85

    На основе картирования стратиграфическими и геоморфологическими методами трансгрес-сивной реперной поверхности понтического времени и соответствующей денудационной поверхности (~5 млн лет назад) определены абсолютные (с учётом изменения уровня моря), постпонтические или неотектонические деформации. Построена соответствующая карта абсолютных вертикальных деформаций, описаны отдельные геологические структуры и особенности их развития, дана геодинамическая интерпретация развития морфоструктур.

  • Ю.С. Доброленский, Б.В. Козелов, А.К. Кузьмин, И.А. Маслов, А.Н. Ляхов, А.М. Мерзлый, С.А. Пулинец, С.А. Черноус Исследования авроральных характеристик и высотно-широтной структуры эмиссий верхней атмосферы и ионосферы Земли с использованием метода пространственных реконструкций изображений, полученных с высоты орбиты перспективного микроспутника
    Механика, 2015, vol. 7, No. 4, p. 77-90

    Исследования и диагностика процессов, происходящих в полярной ионосфере Земли, становятся всё более актуальными, так как влияние этих процессов на изменения параметров космической погоды в околоземном пространстве отражается на качестве и надёжности функционирования технологических систем. Использование платформ микроспутников, оснащённых служебными системами нового поколения, для установки соответствующей диагностической аппаратуры и проведения измерений этих параметров является реальной альтернативой дорогостоящим космическим проектам на крупных космических аппаратах.

  • Герке К.М., Корост Д.В., Васильев Р.В., Карсанина М.В., Тарасовский В.П Изучение строения и определение проницаемости материалов на основе данных рентгеновской микротомографии (на примере пористой керамики)
    Неорганические материалы, 2015, vol. 51, No. 9, p. 1032

    Современные неинвазивные методы исследования трехмерной структуры материалов, такие как рентгеновская томография, позволяют не только получить точные данные о строении образца, но и использовать их для определения эффективных свойств материала численными методами. Исследовали структуру трех образцов пористой проницаемой керамики с помощью микротомографии, а затем численно определи проницаемость с помощью решения уравнения Стокса в трехмерной геометрии порового пространства. Полученные значения находятся в отличном соответствии с лабораторными измерениями. Морфологическое исследование порового пространства (распределение пор по размерам) позволило объяснить полученные результаты для трех образцов керамики, изготовленных из гранул различного размера и формы.

  • Б.Г. Гаврилов, Д.В. Егоров, В.М. Ермак, И.Э. Маркович, Ю.В. Поклад, В.А. Рыбаков, И.А. Ряховский, В.В. Яким Среднеширотные эффекты магнитной бури 17 марта 2015 г.
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 145-157

    Для исследования динамики возникших в результате мощной геомагнитной бури 17 марта 2015 года ионосферных неоднородностей на средних широтах были использованы данные регистрации полного электронного содержания ионосферы и фазы радиосигналов ОНЧ диапазона от радиостанций, расположенных в различных районах Земли. Анализ изменения фаз СДВ радиосигналов совместно с данными измерения ПЭС является не только дополнительным инструментом для изучения динамики ионосферных возмущений, но и позволяет судить о возмущениях электронной плотности в различных слоях ионосферы.

  • Виноградов Е.А., Марков В.К., Марков Д.В. К вопросу о вариации проницаемости трещинно-порового коллектора в результате динамического воздействия
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 52-60

    В работе приводятся результаты экспериментов по фильтрации воды, осложненной частицами перлита, через трещинно-поровое пространство в плоско-радиальной постановке задачи. Отмечены как типичные закономерности, связанные с декольматацией пласта, так и неожиданное снижение проницаемости под действием ударов. В работе делается вывод о том, что в первое время после изменения состояния коллектора он находится в существенно нестабильном состоянии и может нетипично реагировать на внешнее воздействие.

  • Васильев Р.В., Герке К.М., Карсанина М.В., Корост Д.В. Решение уравнения Стокса в трехмерной геометрии конечно-разностным методом
    Математическое Моделирование, 2015 , p. 67-80

    С развитием методов исследования трехмерной структуры пористых и композитных материалов (микротомография, конфокальная микроскопия, FIB-SEM) и расширением базы вычислительных ресурсов появилась возможность моделировать различные процессы непосредственно в трехмерной геометрии образцов таких материалов (pore-scale modeling) для получения их эффективных свойств или более детального понимания исследуемых процессов, например, фильтрации. В настоящей работе мы решаем уравнение Стокса конечно-разностным методом с помощью схем второго и четвертого порядка точности в трехмерной области, геометрия которой повторяет микроструктуру исследуемого образца породы. Полученные для образца песчаника численные значения проницаемости находятся в соответствии с лабораторными измерениями.

  • Шанина В.В., Бычков А.Ю., Герке К.М., Фуникова В.В. Изменение состава, строения и свойств андезитов и базальтов Кошелевского вулкана (Ю. Камчатка) под воздействием гидротермальных процессов: экспериментальные исследования в натурных условиях
    Вода: химия и экология, 2015 , No. 1, p. 3–10

    Представлены результаты длительных (до года) натурных экспериментов, посвященных изменению состава, строения, физических и физико-механических свойств вулканогенных пород (андезитов и базальтов) под воздействием гидротермальных процессов (термальных растворов различного состава, температуры, рН) на территории Нижне- Кошелевского термального поля (Ю. Камчатка).

  • А.М. Будков, Г.Г. Кочарян, В.А. Новиков, А.В. Крашенинников Модификация эмпирического закона трения "Rate and State friction law" для моделирования эпизодов медленного скольжения
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 22-30

    Обсуждается возможность использования эмпирического закона трения «Rate and State» для воспроизведения в численных расчетах режимов скольжения различных типов – «нормальных» и «медленных землетрясений», «эпизодов медленного скольжения». Показано, что канонический закон «Rate and State» позволяет добиться хорошего согласия с экспериментальными данными в случае динамических срывов в режиме прерывистого скольжениия, однако с его помощью не удается воспроизвести кинематические характеристики движения при переходных режимах скольжения. Для численного моделирования «медленных» движений предложено дополнить «Rate and State»-модель вязким членом. При этом динамическая вязкость зависит как от свойств собственно контакта, так и от условий нагружения. Показано, что модифицированная таким образом «Rate and State»-модель позволяет моделировать широкий спектр режимов сдвигового деформирования, в том числе и «медленные» движения.

  • Е.Г. Бугаев, С.Б. Кишкина Полнота реализации нормативных требований при обосновании сейсмической безопасности АЭС и ХОЯТ
    Ядерная и радиационная безопасность, 2015 , No. 3, p. 1-7

    По результатам сейсмологического мониторинга выполнен тематический анализ обоснования сейсмической безопасности атомных электрических станций и хранилищ отработанного ядерного топлива. Показана неэффективность режимных сейсмологических наблюдений с использованием автономных сейсмических станций, расположенных на удалении более 10 - 15 км друг от друга, что связано со слабой сейсмической активностью районов расположения атомных электрических станций и хранилищ отработанного ядерного топлива и с высоким уровнем помех в пунктах наблюдения. Такие условия диктуют необходимость использования при сейсмологическом мониторинге высокочувствительных систем наблюдения, позволяющих регистрировать очень слабые землетрясения с магнитудами вплоть до отрицательных. На основе анализа результатов наблюдения слабых событий существует возможность вероятностных оценок сейсмичности и обоснования современной геодинамической активности с учетом структурной приуроченности очагов землетрясений.

  • Беседина А.Н., Кишкина С.Б.., Куликов В.И. Мониторинг геодинамических событий на Воркутинском месторождении
    Динамические процессы в геосферах: сборник научных трудов ИДГ РАН, 2015 , No. 7, p. 76-85

    В статье рассмотрены результаты регистрации шахтной сейсмичности в районе Воркутинского каменноугольного месторождения. Сдвиговая модель очага сейсмического события в виде мгновенно вскрывающейся круговой трещины применялась для оценки моментных магнитуд зарегистрированных геодинамических событий, которые варьируются от 0,48 до 2,04. Сопоставление статических и динамических параметров очага позволило получить линейную корреляционную зависимость между моментной магнитудой и энергетическим классом событий. Оценка приведенной сейсмической энергии показала аномально сильную зависимость от масштаба события.

  • Беляков Г.В., Таирова А.А., Барышников Н.А. Гравитационное осаждение твердых фракций суспензии при фильтрации через пористую среду
    Динамические процессы в геосферах: сборник научных трудов ИДГ РАН, 2015 , No. 7, p. 44-51

    Используя разработанный нами оптический метод, который основан на поглощении твердым веществом (частицами суспензии) излучения от внешнего источника, экспериментально определяется профиль концентрации осаждаемых частиц вдоль потока суспензии, фильтрующейся через протяженный "прозрачный" фильтр. Расход суспензии измеряется с течением времени при постоянной разности давлений на входе и выходе из фильтра. С помощью методов механики сплошной среды, строится уравнение неразрывности выделенного движущегося объема суспензии, изменение массы частиц в котором пропорционально концентрации суспензии в единице объема фильтра с изменяющейся пористостью. По измеренной концентрации осажденных частиц вдоль фильтра находится коэффициент пропорциональности для предложенной зависимости интенсивности осаждения частиц от концентрации суспензии

  • Батухтин И.В., А.А. Остапчук, Д.В. Павлов Управление режимом деформирования трещины в лабораторном эксперименте
    Динамические процессы в геосферах: сборник научных трудов ИДГ РАН, 2015 , No. 7, p. 15-22

    В серии лабораторных экспериментов в постановке «слайдер»-модели исследовалась возможность изменения режима деформирования модельной трещины, заполненной многокомпонентным гранулированным материалом. Показано, что основным параметром, определяющим закономерности процесса разупрочнения контакта, является структура заполнителя трещины. Обнаружен критический переход от динамики «медленных» событий к «быстрым». Данный переход происходит при определенном изменении структуры заполнителя и сопровождается изменением закономерностей излучения накопленной упругой энергии.

  • Н.А. Барышников, С.Б. Турунтаев, С.В. Елисеев Фильтрация вязкой жидкости в пористой среде, сопровождаемая фазовым переходом
    Динамические процессы в геосферах: сборник научных трудов ИДГ РАН, 2015 , No. 7, p. 38-43

    Одной из перспективных технологий разработки кероген содержащих пород Баженовской свиты является термогазовый метод воздействия на пласт. Предполагается, что в процессе подобного воздействия может формироваться область пиролиза керогена, продвигающаяся в направлении фильтрационного потока. При пиролизе будет происходить увеличение пористости. В качестве аналога такого процесса, с гидродинамической точки зрения, может рассматриваться плавление части вещества, формирующего матрицу проницаемых пород, при разогреве фильтрационным потоком, имеющим высокую температуру. В статье представлено экспериментальное исследование динамики продвижения фронта плавления части вещества скелета при фильтрации через него разогретой вязкой жидкости. Описан процесс формирования и продвижения фронта плавления в виде проплавленных каналов. Описано явление формирования оторочки из расплавленного вещества на фронте плавления.

  • Адушкин В.В., Кудрявцев В.П. Источники метана в Арктической зоне
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 112-120

    На основе анализа данных наземных, морских и спутниковых измерений были выявлены особенности генерации метана в атмосфере в различных регионах Арктики, обладающих различным потенциалом метаногенеза. Установлено, что мощность источников метана не включённых в официальные таблицы IPCC составляет более 250 Тг/год. Сезонные изменения потоков метана в Арктической зоне объясняют наличие устойчивого осенне-зимнего максимума концентрации метана. Сделан вывод о том, что источниками, поддерживающими значительную эмиссию метана в СП в осенне-зимний период являются водно-болотные угодья, озёра и эмиссия метана в континентальной и морской частях Арктики, обусловленная таянием многолетнемерзлых грунтов.

  • Адушкин В.В., Козлов С.И., Николайшвили С.Ш., Платов Ю.В., Сильников М.В. Исключительные оптические явления, наблюдавшиеся при запусках отечественных ракет-носителей
    Известия Российской академии ракетных и артиллерийских наук, 2015 , No. 3, p. 38-43

    Обсуждаются необычные оптические явления, наблюдавшиеся в нашей стране и за рубе- жом при запусках некоторых отечественных ракет-носителей. Дается интерпретация этих данных с единых методологических и теоретических позиций.

  • Адушкин В.В., Вениаминов С.С., Козлов С.И., Сильников М.В. О техногенном засорении космоса и некоторых его последствиях
    Вопросы Оборонной Техники, 2015 , No. 7, p. 16-21

    Сделан обзор текущего состояния засоренности околоземного космоса вследствие космической деятельности человека и его перспективы на основе последних иссле- дований отечественных и зарубежных ученых и на примере реальных многолетних наблюдений. Рассмотрены некоторые специальные последствия прогрессирующего процесса техногенного засорения космоса (в том числе имеющие оборонные аспекты).

  • Адушкин В.В., Опарин В.Н Физика и геомеханика формирования и развития очаговых зон разрушения горных пород в природных и горнотехнических системах: современное состояние, перспективные направления фундаментальных исследований и прикладных разработок
    Горный информационно-аналитический бюллетень (научно-технический журнал), 2015 , p. 24-44

    Формулируются актуальные задачи и направления научных исследований, а также технико-технологических разработок по физике и геомеханике формирования и развития очаговых зон разрушения горных пород в природных и горно-технических системах. Отмечается, что сформулированные направления исследований и разработок могут составить основу для международного мегапроекта по наукам о Земле междисциплинарного характера на тему «Разработка и создание многослойной геоинформационно-мониторинговой системы геомеханико-геодинамической и экологической безопасности в мире».

  • Б.А. Иванов Колебания поверхности астероида при образовании ударного кратера (на примере Фобоса)
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 30-38

    На поверхности многих исследованных астероидов обнаружены линейные структуры (борозды). Многие исследователи интерпретируют эти борозды как след катившихся по поверхности валунов. Данная гипотеза существенно зависит от колебаний поверхности астероида при образовании ударных кратеров. В предлагаемой работе приводятся результаты численного моделирования удара на астероиде диаметром 22 км (модельный «Фобос»). Показано, что интенсивность колебаний свободной поверхности зависит от предполагаемой структуры Фобоса. Во многих случаях гипотеза о катящихся камнях представляется неправомерной

  • А.В. Черменин Анализ ошибок навигационной спутниковой системы в ГФО «Михнево»
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 175-180

    В настоящей работе проведено исследование причин некорректного определения местоположения глобальной навигационной спутниковой системой GPS. На основе данных геофизической обсерватории (ГФО) «Михнево» за ноябрь 2014–март 2015 гг. был проведён анализ ошибок определения координат при их статистическом накоплении. Обнаружено, что распределение ошибок не подчиняется нормальному закону, а существующие алгоритмы ионосферной коррекции не в состоянии компенсировать влияние атмосферных планетарных волн, что приводит к периодическому ухудшению точности систем GPS.

  • Хазинс В.М., Спивак А.А. Интенсификация вентиляции карьера конвективной струей
    Взрывное дело, 2015 , No. 114, p. 253-265

    Существенным фактором, затрудняющим работу горнорудных карьеров, является пыль в периоды массовых выбросов, сопровождающих взрывную отбойку рудной массы. Приводятся результаты численного моделирования процесса проветривания карьера в естественных условиях и при искусственной вентиляции с помощью струи, сформированной нагревом ограниченной области воздуха у дна карьера. Анализируются распределения концентрации пыли внутри карьеров с пологими и крутыми бортами, а также в прилегающей к карьеру атмосфере. Получены оценки времени проветривания карьера.

  • Усольцева, О. А., Гамбурцева, Н. Г., Гамбурцев, А. Г., Никонов, А. А., Кузнецов, О. П. Современные геодинамические процессы в литосфере Балтийского щита
    Пространство и Время, 2015 , No. 1, p. 307-313

    В работе рассчитаны линейные тренды неравномерных и равномерных временных рядов времен пробега Р волн для станций Тромсе, Кево, Апатиты и Нурмиярми. Полученный результат хорошо согласуется с прежними результатами о высоком отрицательном линейном тренде в сейсмоактивных районах и почти нулевом тренде на платформенных территориях.

  • Спивак А.А., Хазинс В.М. Взаимодействии воздушных потоков с орографической неоднородностью в виде локального понижения рельефа
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 99-106

    Обсуждаются результаты численного моделирования аэродинамического режима воздушных потоков в приповерхностной зоне атмосферы Земли при наличии орографической неоднородности. Показано, что при определенных условиях в воздушном потоке формируются вихревые структуры, характер которых варьируется со временем. Приведены пространственные распределения как самих вихревых структур, так и концентрации возмущенных пылевых потоков. Результаты работы могут служить основой для оценки аэроэлектрических, электродного и других геофизических эффектов в приповерхностной атмосфере, а также при описании газодинамических процессов, сопровождающих вентиляцию карьеров при добыче полезных ископаемых открытым способом, в частности, с использованием взрывной технологии.

  • Сергеев В.Н. Распределение радиоактивных элементов, определяющих радиогенное тепло Земли, в ее недрах и геонейтрино
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 193–199

    Рассмотрена возможность нахождения распределения радиоактивных элементов, определяющих радиогенное тепло Земли, по данным регистрации геонейтрино. Представлены последние данные по геонейтрино, полученные детекторами KamLAND и Borexino. Высказано предположение, что некоторое различие в данных радиогенного тепла, полученных этими детекторами, связано с наличием неоднородности распределения радиоактивных элементов в мантии. Приведены проекты детекторов, способных регистрировать геонейтрино, которые могут быть реализованы в ближайшие годы.

  • И.А. Ряховский, Б.Г. Гаврилов, В.М. Ермак, Ю.В. Поклад Пеленгация молний с использованием регистраторов КНЧ/ОНЧ излучения, размещенных в пространственно разнесенных измерительных пунктов
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 158-161

    В ГФО «Михнево» опробована и внедрена методика определения положения молниевых разрядов с использованием регистраторов КНЧ/ОНЧ излучения, размещенных в пространственно разнесенных измерительных пунктах. Это позволило повысить точность лоцирования молний по сравнению с методом моноимпульсной пеленгации. Внедрение нового метода открывает возможность исследования корреляции электромагнитного излучения молний с вариациями сейсмических и акустических полей.

  • Ю.В. Поклад, В.А. Рыбаков, Б.Г. Гаврилов, В.М. Ермак, А.В. Крашенинников, И.А. Ряховский, С.П. Соловьев Влияние солнечных рентгеновских вспышек на изменения атмосферного электрического поля и распространение волн СДВ диапазона
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 162-167

    В работе приведены результаты исследования возмущений приземного электрического поля и изменения условий распространения волн СДВ диапазона во время рентгеновских вспышек на Солнце по данным аппаратуры, установленной в геофизической обсерватории ИДГ РАН «Михнево».

  • Печерникова Г.В. Масса вещества, выброшенного при макроударах с растущей планеты, и проблема образования Луны
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 200–207

    В статье рассматривается проблема подпитки околоземного долунного роя веществом, выброшенным при столкновениях допланетных тел с растущей планетой в процессе ее аккумуляции. Оценен поток эжекты с растущей Земли на гелиоцентрические орбиты в зависимости от времени и массы планеты в рамках ко-аккреционной модели формирования системы Земля–Луна.

  • А.А. Остапчук, Д.В. Павлов, В.В. Ружич, Е.А. Виноградов, В.К. Марков Трансформация деформационного режима нарушения сплошности в натурных экспериментах
    В сб, 2015 , p. 86-92

    В статье приведены результаты натурных экспериментов, направленных на установление возможной причины изменения режима деформирования нарушения сплошности. Показано, что доминирующий режим определяется внутренними характеристиками «контактных пятен» – участков разлома, в котором происходит наиболее интенсивное силовое взаимодействие. При деформировании трещины, заполненной неоднородным материалом, миграция «контактных пятен» может привести к трансформации деформационного режима вследствие изменения реологии локальных участков межблокового контакта.

  • Кулагин В.П., Шустов Б.М., Кузнецов Ю.М., Каперко А.Ф., Бобер С.А., Оболяева Н.М., Нароенков С.А., Шувалов В.В., Светцов В.В., Попова О.П., Глазачев Д.О. Методы и средства информационно-аналитической оценки астероидно-кометной опасности
    Вестник НПО им, 2015 , No. 4, p. 9-15

    Рассмотрены методы и программные средства для создания информационно-аналитической системы мониторинга опасных космических объектов. Представлены структура системы и описание ее функциональных компонентов, позволяющих обеспечить оперативную оценку астероиднокометной опасности и прогноз последствий столкновения опасных небесных тел с Землей. Приведены результаты работы системы в части моделирования движения космических объектов.

  • Куликов В.И., Кочарян Г.Г., Акимкин М.С. Деструктор – альтернатива БВР при проходке горных выработок
    Метро и тоннели, 2015 , No. 2, p. 36-40

    Буровзрывные работы (БВР) до сих пор остаются одной из важных технологий проходки перегонных и станционных тоннелей Московского метрополитена. Нередко БВР ведутся в нескольких или десятках метров от действующих перегонных тоннелей и технологических выработок. В этих случаях следует считаться с тем, что у БВР есть негативная сторона - сейсмическое действие на горный массив, действующие тоннели, охраняемые сооружения метрополитена и застройку, и инфраструктуру города. Высокая интенсивность сейсмического действия может стать препятствием к проведению БВР. Альтернативой БВР может служить проходка выработок по схожей с БВР технологией, но с заменой штатного ВВ на деструктор, у которого тротиловый эквивалент около 0,002

  • Куликов В.И., Дмитриев А.Ю., Галушко Ф.И. Сейсмическое действие БВР с электронной системой инициирования
    Метро и тоннели, 2015 , No. 3, p. 22-26

    Ранее в журнале «Метро и тоннели» была описана система электронного инициирования зарядов при БВР, проанализированы достоинства этой системы по сравнению с пиротехническими средствами инициирования. В данной работе приведены результаты натурных исследований сейсмического действия БВР при проходке горных выработок метрополитена с электрической и электронной системой инициирования. В работе показаны недостатки технологии короткозамедленного взрывания с применением электродетонаторов. Продемонстрировано преимущество электронной системы инициирования I-KON, которая позволила реализовать пошпуровое взрывание с минимально возможным сейсмическим воздействием.

  • Куликов В.И., Дмитриев А.Ю., Галушко Ф.И. Сейсмическое действие БВР с электронной системой инициирования
    Взрывное дело, 2015 , No. 113, p. 366-383

    В работе приведены результаты натурных исследований сейсмического действия БВР по проходке горных выработок на строительстве Московского Метрополитена. Регистрация сейсмовзрывных волн проводилась, как в горных выработках, так и на дневной поверхности. Получены параметры сейсмовзрывных волн, степень затухания волны и коэффициент сейсмичности для ближней зоны, в которой максимальные ускорения в сейcмовзрывной волне достигали 20g, максимальные скорости - 0,2 м/с. В работе показаны недостатки технологии КЗВ с применением электродетонаторов. Продемонстрировано преимущество использования электронной системы инициирования I-KON, которая позволила реализовать пошпуровое взрывание с минимально возможным сейсмическим воздействием.

  • Беккер С.З., Козлов С.И. Влияют ли мощные радиоволны на поведение озона в нижней ионосфере? (Предварительный анализ)
    Труды 58 научной конференции МФТИ с международным участием «Актуальные проблемы фундаментальных и прикладных наук в области физики» (Тезисы докладов), 2015, vol. 1 , p. 243-244

  • Г.Г. Кочарян От землетрясения - к крипу: единство противоположностей
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 10-15

    В статье кратко обсуждается проблема идентификации различных режимов деформирования разломов – есть ли это разные физические процессы или представители единого ряда событий.

  • Ковалева И.Х., Гаврилов Б.Г., Поклад Ю.В., Зецер Ю.И. Нелинейные волновые структуры на ионах NO+ в активном плазменном эксперименте «NORTH STAR»
    Динамические процессы в геосферах, 2015 , No. 7, p. 133-144

    На основе анализа оптических и электромагнитных экспериментальных данных ионосферного эксперимента «North Star» выявлены характерные признаки регистрации ионных волновых структур на ионах NO. Данные структуры регистрируются измерительными блоками после прохождения области плазменного облака в возмущённой оптической вспышкой фоновой плазме. Предложено теоретическое обоснование механизма возбуждения данных структур, которые идентифицируются как нелинейные ионно-циклотронные градиентно-дрейфовые волны.

  • Карсанина М.В., Герке К.М., Васильев Р.В., Корост Д.В. Моделирование структуры материалов, обладающих желаемыми свойствами, с помощью корреляционных функций
    Математическое Моделирование, 2015 , p. 50-63

    Для решения множества фундаментальных и прикладных задач самых различных научных дисциплин и производственных направлений необходимо проектировать материалы с заданными структурными характеристиками и физико-химическими свойствами. Одним из методов количественного описания микроструктуры пористых материалов и сред являются корреляционные функции, с помощью алгоритма оптимизации «отжигом» на их основе можно проводить сборки/реконструкции структур. В настоящей работе мы производим создание 60 образцов гипотетических материалов различной структуры по аналитически заданным корреляционным функциям с тремя изменяемыми параметрами. В дальнейшем для каждого образца рассчитывается эффективная проницаемость на основе численного решения уравнения Стокса в его трехмерной геометрии. На основе анализа полученных результатов наглядно показано, что можно сконструировать пористый материал с желаемыми физическими (проницаемость) и структурными (линейные размеры порового пространства) свойствами.

  • Христофоров Б.Д. Моделирование взрывных процессов при вспышках у поверхности Солнца
    Инженерная физика, 2015 , No. 10, p. 57-62

    Проведено моделирование параметров ударных волн в фотосфере с энергией характерной для солнечных вспышек. Получены температуры, значительно превышающие характерные для солнечного ядра. Предположено, что в этих условиях в ударных волнах мог происходить синтез тяжелых элементов, уносимых солнечным ветром при солнечных вспышках. Это могло влиять наряду с аккрецией на условия образования планетарных солнечных систем. Первые результаты были получены для взрывов с постоянной мощностью без учета радиационно-газодинамических процессов и гравитации. В дальнейших исследованиях учтены радиационно-газодинамические процессы при различных условиях выделения энергии взрывов и гравитацию при определении начальных размеров Солнца для оптимального выноса массы солнечным ветром. Предложенный механизм образования планетарных систем, учитывающий как аккрецию, так и принос солнечным ветром тяжелых продуктов нуклеосинтеза в ударных волнах в фотосфере может быть общим для Вселенной.

Прочие публикации

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в базу реферативной информации Web of Science, Scopus

  • 37. Schmedemann, N., T. Kneissl, B.A. Ivanov, G.G. Michael, R.J. Wagner, G. Neukum, O. Ruesch, H. Hiesinger, K. Krohn, T. Roatsch, F. Preusker, H. Sierks, R. Jaumann, V. Reddy, A. Nathues, S.H.G. Walter, A. Neesemann, C.A. Raymond, and C.T. Russell The cratering record, chronology and surface ages of (4) Vesta in comparison to smaller asteroids and the ages of HED meteorites
    Planetary and Space Science, 2014 , p. 104-130

    We derived model functions for the crater production size-frequency distribution and chronology of the asteroids 951 Gaspra, 243 Ida, 21 Lutetia and 4 Vesta, based on a lunar-like crater production function and a lunar-like chronology with a smooth exponential decay in impact rate for the first ~1 Ga of Solar System history. For Gaspra, Ida and Lutetia we find surface ages roughly in agreement with published data. Using the same approach for Vesta leads to results with high correlation to Ar–Ar reset ages of HED meteorites, for which a strong dynamical and spectroscopic connection to Vesta has been found. In contrast to recently published young formation ages of the Rheasilvia and Veneneia basins of about 1 and 2 Ga, respectively, we find for Rheasilvia a formation age of 3.5±0.1 Ga and for the Veneneia formation a lower limit of 3.7±0.1 Ga. For comparison we also give surface model ages for a preliminary version of a chronology (pers. comm. D.P. O׳Brien) based on the Late Heavy Bombardment theory. Error bars presented in our work stem only from statistical analysis of measured crater distributions and do not include the uncertainty of the used chronology model.

  • 36. Schmedemann, N., G.G. Michael, B.A. Ivanov, J.B. Murray, and G. Neukum The age of Phobos and its largest crater
    Stickney, 2014 , p. 152-163

    We derived crater production functions and chronology functions of Phobos for two scenarios, which likely represent the end-members of its dynamical evolution. Case A assumes that Phobos has been in its current orbit about Mars since its formation. Case B assumes a recent capture of Phobos and the impact history of an average Main Belt Asteroid. We determined the age of an average surface to the west of the Stickney crater and of the interior of the Stickney crater. The results indicate (i) the formation or major collision of Phobos about 4.3 Ga (Case A) or 3.5 Ga (Case B) ago, (ii) the Stickney crater is about 4.2 Ga (Case A) or 2.6 Ga (Case B) old and (iii) grooves probably formed between 3.1 and 3.8 Ga (Case A) or 44 and 340 Ma (Case B). Thus, Stickney seems to be older than the investigated grooves on Phobos.

  • 35. Ermakov, A.I., M.T. Zuber, D.E. Smith, C.A. Raymond, G. Balmino, R.R. Fu, and B.A. Ivanov Constraints on Vesta's interior structure using gravity and shape models from the Dawn mission
    Icarus, 2014 , p. 146-160

    We use the shape and gravity field of Vesta determined from observations of the Dawn spacecraft to place constraints on the asteroid’s interior structure. We compute a three-layer interior structure model by minimizing the power of the residual gravity anomaly. The densities of the mantle and crust are based on constraints derived from the Howardite–Eucrite–Diogenite (HED) meteorites. Vesta’s present-day shape is not in hydrostatic equilibrium. The Rheasilvia and Veneneia impact basins have a large effect on Vesta’s shape and are the main source of deviation from hydrostatic shape. Constraining a pre-giant-impact rotation rate and orientation of the spin axis from an ellipsoidal fit to the parts of Vesta unaffected by the giant impacts, and using the theory of figure, we can constrain the shape of the core. Our solution for Vesta’s crust–mantle interface reveals a belt of thick crust around Rheasilvia and Veneneia. The thinnest crust is in the floor of the two basins and in the Vestalia Terra region. Our solution does not reveal an uplift of the crust–mantle boundary to the surface in the largest basins. This, together with the lack of olivine detected by the Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) data in Rheasilvia and Veneneia, indicates that Vesta’s presumed olivine mantle was either not brought to the surface by these large impacts or was covered by ejecta from subsequent impacts.

  • 34. Arkani-Hamed, J., and B.A. Ivanov Shock wave propagation in layered planetary embryos
    Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 2014 , p. 45-59

    The propagation of impact-induced shock wave inside a planetary embryo is investigated using the Hugoniot equations and a new scaling law, governing the particle velocity variations along a shock ray inside a spherical body. The scaling law is adopted to determine the impact heating of a growing embryo in its early stage when it is an undifferentiated and uniform body. The new scaling law, similar to other existing scaling laws, is not suitable for a large differentiated embryo consisting of a silicate mantle overlying an iron core. An algorithm is developed in this study on the basis of the ray theory in a spherically symmetric body which relates the shock parameters at the top of the core to those at the base of the mantle, thus enabling the adoption of scaling laws to estimate the impact heating of both the mantle and the core. The algorithm is applied to two embryo models: a simple two-layered model with a uniform mantle overlying a uniform core, and a model where the pre-shock density and acoustic velocity of the embryo are radially dependent. The former illustrates details of the particle velocity, shock pressure, and temperature increase behind the shock front in a 2D axisymmetric geometry. The latter provides a means to compare the results with those obtained by a hydrocode simulation. The agreement between the results of the two techniques in revealing the effects of the core–mantle boundary on the shock wave transmission across the boundary is encouraging.

  • Kocharyan G.G., Ostapchuk A.A., Markov V.K., Pavlov D.V. Some questions of geomechanics of the faults in the continental crust
    Izvestiya, 2014, vol. 50, No. 3, p. 355-366

    We present the results of laboratory experiments on studying the formation of different slip modes on the interfaces in a rock massif such as aseismic creep, stick-slip, and periodic slow-slip events. It is shown that the way of releasing the accumulated elastic energy is determined by the mesoscale structure of the gouge rather than by its macroscopic strength characteristics. The evolution of the stress chains which are formed and broken during the displacement on the fracture, as well as the length and number of these chains, completely determines the regularities of the deformation. The role of these load-bearing elements in nature can be played, e.g., by the “contact spots,” which determine the regularities of stress concentration near the interblock boundary. We consider the effects of low-amplitude vibrations on stressed fractures. It is shown that, depending on the mode of deformation, the vibration impact can either reduce or boost the amplitude of separate events and the fraction of energy that is released dynamically. In the conclusion of the paper, we discuss the possibility of using the shear strength of the fault zone as a geomechanical parameter controlling the mode of deformation.

  • Кочарян Г.Г., Остапчук А.А., Марков В.К., Павлов Д.В Некоторые вопросы геомеханики разломов континентальной коры
    Физика Земли, 2014 , No. 3, p. 51-64

    В статье приведены результаты лабораторных экспериментов, направленных на исследование закономерностей формирования различных режимов скольжения по границам раздела массива горных пород –асейсмического крипа, стик-слипа, периодических подвижек с малой скоростью. Показано, что способ реализации накопленной упругой энергии определяется не столько прочностными макрохарактеристиками заполнителя, сколько его структурой на мезоуровне. Эволюция силовых цепочек, которые образуются и разрушаются в процессе сдвига по трещине, их протяженность и количество полностью определяют закономерности деформирования. В природе роль таких несущих элементов могут выполнять, например, “контактные пятна”, определяющие закономерности концентрации напряжений в окрестности границы между блоками. Рассматривается эффект воздействия низкоамплитудных колебаний на напряженные нарушения сплошности. Показано, что в зависимости от режима деформирования, вибрационное воздействие может как уменьшить, так и увеличить амплитуду отдельных событий и долю энергии, реализуемой динамически. В заключительной части статьи обсуждается возможность использования сдвиговой жесткости разломной зоны в качестве геомеханического параметра, контролирующего деформационный режим.

  • 31. Khristoforov, B.D. Parameters of radiative and gas-dynamic processes in air, near-ground, and ground explosions of charges with a mass up to 1000 tons
    Сombustion explosion and shock waves, 2014 , No. 1, p. 97-104

    Results of measurements and processing of sizes, energy, and power of radiation of a cloud formed after an explosion of 50/50 TNT/RDX and TNT cast charges with masses ranging from 0.01 kg to 1000 tons on the ground surface and at different heights in air are presented; the measurements and data processing are performed within wide temporal (up to 10 s/kg1/3) and spectral (up to 28 µm) intervals. The results are compared with available published data. These explosives have the maximum radiative characteristics owing to the high content of carbon in explosion products. Under conditions of explosions in air, the measured emitted energy approaches 50% of the explosion energy. In the case of ground explosions, the radiation is anisotropic because of screening by ejected soil, and the ratio of energies emitted upward and along the ground surface can exceed the order of magnitude.

  • 30. Христофоров Б.Д. Параметры радиационных и газодинамических процессов воздушных, приземных и наземных взрывов зарядов массой до 1000 т
    Физика горения и взрыва, 2014 , No. 1, p. 107-114

    Представлены результаты измерения и обработки размеров, энергии и мощности излучения взрывного облака в широких временных (до 10 с/кг1 /3) и спектральных (до 28 мкм) интервалах при взрывах литых зарядов ТГ 50/50 и тротила массой от 0.01 кг до 1000 т на земле и в воздухе на разных высотах. Приведено их сравнение с литературными данными. Эти взрывчатые вещества имеют максимальные радиационные характеристики вследствие высокого содержания углерода в продуктах. В условиях взрывов в воздухе измеренная излученная энергия приближалась к 50 % от энергии взрыва. При наземных взрывах излучение было анизотропно из-за экранировки выброшенным грунтом, а отношение энергий, излученных вверх и вдоль поверхности земли, могло превышать порядок величины.

  • А.А. Сулимов, Б.С. Ермолаев, С.Б. Турунтаев, А.А. Борисов, М.К. Сукоян Detonation of explosive Proppant: RDX-containing water-saturated sand
    Russian journal of physical chemistry Т, 2014, vol. 8, No. 3, p. 338-344

    The results of experimental investigations and thermodynamic calculations of the detonation of explosive proppant, an RDX-containing water-saturating sand, are reported. The material studied is of interest for use as an explosive additive to propping material injected into hydraulic fractures of oil-bearing beds. The tests were conducted in duralumin casings with cylindrical or planar inner channels. The dependences of the detonation velocity on the RDX content in the mixture in the range of 14 to 74 wt %, RDX and sand particle size, and initial temperature are examined. The critical detonation diameter of the charge decreases with increasing content RDX in the mixture, being only several millimeters at RDX contents of 30 wt % and above. Polydisperse RDX provides a high detonability of such mixtures; use of narrow particle size RDX fractions, especially coarse (0.4–0.7 mm), significantly increases the critical detonation diameter. As the initial temperature of the mixture is increased from 20 to 90°C, the critical detonation width decreases severalfold. The detonation of mixtures in a convergent planar channel occurs at a constant rate, which differs little from the detonation velocity measured in a cylindrical channel. Reaching the place where the opening of the channel is less than the critical width, detonation fails abruptly. Thermodynamic calculations of the detonation characteristics of the explosive proppant are performed using the BKWS equation of state under the assumption that the sand component behaves as an inert additive, being in mechanical equilibrium with the detonation products of the RDX-water mixture. A satisfactory agreement with the experimental data on the detonation velocity and its dependence on the RDX content is demonstrated. This makes it possible to conclude that RDX mixed with water-saturated sand detonates within a narrow reaction zone without significant convective heat transfer to the inert additive.

  • А.А. Сулимов, Б.С. Ермолаев, С.Б. Турунтаев, А.А. Борисов, М.К. Сукоян Детонация взрывного проппанта – гексогенсодержащего водонасыщенного песка
    Химическая физика, 2014, vol. 33, No. 5, p. 1–7

    Проведены экспериментальные исследования и термодинамические расчеты детонации взрывного проппанта – гексогенсодержащего водонасыщенного песка. Исследуемый материал представляет интерес для использования в качестве взрывчатой добавки к расклинивающему наполнителю, который закачивается в трещины гидравлического разрыва нефтеносных пластов. Опыты проводились в дюралюминиевых оболочках с цилиндрическим и плоским каналами. Изучена зависимость скорости детонации от содержания гексогена в смеси в диапазоне от 14 до 74 вес. %, размеров частиц гексогена, песка и начальной температуры. Критический диаметр заряда, способного детонировать, снижается при увеличении содержания гексогена в смеси, составляя всего несколько миллиметров при содержании гексогена от 30 вес. % и выше. Полидисперсный гексоген обеспечивает высокую детонационную способность смесей; фракции частиц гексогена в узком диапазоне размеров, в особенности крупный гексоген с частицами размером 0.4–0.7 мм, заметно повышают критический диаметр детонации. При повышении начальной температуры смеси от +20°C до +90°C критическая толщина детонации снижается в несколько раз. Детонация исследуемых смесей в сужающемся плоском канале протекает с постоянной скоростью, которая мало отличается от скорости детонации, измеренной в цилиндрическом канале. Достигнув участка, где раскрытие канала оказывается меньше критического, детонация резко обрывается. Термодинамические расчеты детонации взрывного проппанта проведены с использованием уравнения состояния BKWS в предположении, что песок является инертной добавкой, которая находится в механическом равновесии с продуктами детонации смеси гексоген + вода. Получено удовлетворительное согласие с экспериментом по скорости детонации и ее зависимости от содержания гексогена. Это позволяет заключить, что гексоген в смеси с водонаполненным песком детонирует в пределах узкой зоны реакции, без существенных потерь тепла на нагрев инертной добавки путем конвекции

  • Turuntaev S. Peculiarities of elastic waves generated by fatigue tensile fractures
    Advanced Materials Research, 2014, vol. 891 , p. 1779-1784

    In the case of fracturing of rocks in subcritical stress state, the stress release due to fracturing could be accompanied by stress increase near the fracture tips, so the rock deformation near the tips could also generate elastic waves (so called "stopping-phase"). Results of experimental modeling of elastic wave generations by fatigue tensile fractures are considered. The model sample consisted of elastic layer made of rubber and fragile layer made of paraffin, the layers were bounded. The elastic layer was stretched and fixed, so the fragile layer was under static tension and started fracturing by tensile fractures. First fractures appeared in visually intact material, later fractures were preceded by a cloud of small "micro" fractures. The fracturing generated elastic waves, which had two components: one corresponded to fracturing of the fragile layer and had characteristic frequency 5-10 kHz; another one had frequency 100-300 Hz, opposite onset and corresponded to tension of elastic layer. It was concluded that tensile fractures in stressed rocks could be considered as a kind of a double-source of elastic waves: one source is the fracture itself, another source is an area of deformations due to stress increase in the vicinity of the fracture tips.

  • 25. V.V. Adushkin, V.N. Oparin From the alternating-sign explosion response of rocks to the pendulum waves in stressed geomedia. Part III
    Journal of Mining Science July 2014, 2014, vol. 50 , p. 623-645

    The article reviews research and development results in the sphere of designing unique apparatuses and equipment for modeling and in situ recording of nonlinear elastic waves and associated electro-magnetic emission in block-hierarchical rock masses in the condition of high stresses. The joint experimental outcomes and theoretical research findings gained by leading institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences and its branches within recent decades, in the framework of integration interdisciplinary projects offer the methodology and instrumentation support for new promising systems of integrated geomechanical and geophysical monitoring of mining-induced earthquakes and rockbursts in Russian mines that may act as unique natural “laboratories” for both academic and applied research in geosciences

  • 24. Адушкин В.В., Опарин В.Н От явления знакопеременной реакции горных пород на динамические воздействия - к волнам маятникового типа в напряженных геосредах. Ч. ΙII
    Физико-технические проблемы разработки полезных ископаемых, 2014 , No. 4, p. 10-38

    Обсуждаются прикладные аспекты современных представлений о блочно-иерархическом строении массивов горных пород, феноменологических основ теории волн маятникового типа применительно к формированию и реализации очаговых зон катастрофических событий в природных и горно-технических геосистемах. Устанавливается формализованная связь между концентрационным критерием прочности твердых тел по С. Н. Журкову, экспериментальным критерием “схлопывания” подземных выработок и канонической структурой спектрального состава волн маятникового типа по В. Н. Опарину, а также факту дальнодействия мощных взрывных воздействий в геосредах по М. А. Садовскому - В. В. Адушкину. Обосновывается необходимость энергетического подхода к описанию процесса трансформации упругой энергии очаговых зон катастрофических событий в кинетическую энергию движения составляющих их структурных элементов. Вводится новое понятие о “сейсмоэмиссионных событиях интерференционного типа”.

  • 23. Mikko Nikkilä, Valentin Polishchuk and Dmitry Krasnoshchekov Robust estimation of seismic coda shape
    Geophysical Journal International, 2014 , p. 557-565

    We present a new method for estimation of seismic coda shape. It falls into the same class of methods as non-parametric shape reconstruction with the use of neural network techniques where data are split into a training and validation data sets. We particularly pursue the well-known problem of image reconstruction formulated in this case as shape isolation in the presence of a broadly defined noise. This combined approach is enabled by the intrinsic feature of seismogram which can be divided objectively into a pre-signal seismic noise with lack of the target shape, and the remainder that contains scattered waveforms compounding the coda shape. In short, we separately apply shape restoration procedure to pre-signal seismic noise and the event record, which provides successful delineation of the coda shape in the form of a smooth almost non-oscillating function of time. The new algorithm uses a recently developed generalization of classical computational-geometry tool of α-shape. The generalization essentially yields robust shape estimation by ignoring locally a number of points treated as extreme values, noise or non-relevant data. Our algorithm is conceptually simple and enables the desired or pre-determined level of shape detail, constrainable by an arbitrary data fit criteria. The proposed tool for coda shape delineation provides an alternative to moving averaging and/or other smoothing techniques frequently used for this purpose. The new algorithm is illustrated with an application to the problem of estimating the coda duration after a local event. The obtained relation coefficient between coda duration and epicentral distance is consistent with the earlier findings in the region of interest.

  • Адушкин В.В., Спивак А.А., Харламов В.А. Особенности сейсмомагнитного эффекта в зоне влияния разлома
    Доклады академии наук, 2014, vol. 454, No. 5, p. 590-593

    Приведены результаты совместного анализа локальных длиннопериодных (с периодом более 1 сут) геомагнитных вариаций и уровня подземных вод безнапорного водосодержащего горизонта в центральной части Восточно-Европейской платформы на среднеширотной геофизической обсерватории "Михнево" ИДГ РАН (54,960N; 37,7740E) за период 2010-2011 гг. Наряду с известными вариациями с периодом около 27 суток и двумя гармониками указанной периодичности в ~6-8 и ~12-14 сут. установлены периодичности локальных вариаций магнитного поля Земли с периодом около 1 года. С другой стороны установлено, что основная по величине амплитуды вариация уровня подземных вод верхнего безнапорного горизонта характеризуется годовой периодичностью, определяемой притоком талой воды и ее инфильтрацией в весенне-летний период. В результате сравнения сезонных вариаций гидрогеологического режима и годовой цикличности геомагнитных вариаций показана значимая корреляция между сезонными вариациями одного из основных параметров магнитного поля - магнитного типпера, и изменением уровня подземных вод в безнапорном горизонте

  • 21. Adushkin V.V., Spivak A.A., Kharlamov V.A. Рeculiarities of geomagnetic variations in the central part of the Russian platform
    Izvestiya, 2014, vol. 50, No. 2, p. 215-221

    The instrumental observations of geomagnetic variations in the middle latitudes are analyzed. The main periodicities are revealed in the background local variations of the magnetic field of the Earth. Besides the 27–29-day variations, which are associated with the rotation of the Sun around its axis, also the harmonic components with periods of ∼1, 6–8, 13–14, 57–60 days, and about a year are identified. It is shown that the periodicities in the background variations are both regular and sporadic. The peculiarities in the time behavior of some spectral components of geomagnetic variations are established.

  • 20. Адушкин В.В., Спивак А.А., Харламов В.А. Особенности геомагнитных вариаций в центральной части Восточно-Европейской платформы
    Физика Земли, 2014 , No. 3, p. 66-72

    Приведены результаты анализа данных инструментальных наблюдений за геомагнитными вариациями в условиях среднеширотной обстановки. Определены основные периодичности локальных фоновых вариаций магнитного поля Земли. Наряду с вариациями 27-29 сут., вызываемые периодичностью обращения Солнца вокруг своей оси, зарегистрированы также периодичности с периодами ~ 1; 6-8; 13-14; 57-60 сут и около года. Показано, что периодичности фоновых вариаций имеют регулярный и спорадический характер. Установлены особенности изменения во времени отдельных спектральных составляющих геомагнитных вариаций.

  • 19. Adushkin V.V., Sanina I.A. et al. Study of Recent Tectonic Activity of Morphostructures in the Central Part of the Russian Platform by Remote Methods
    Izvestiya, 2014, vol. 50, No. 2, p. 169-176

    The combined approach is used for studying recent tectonic activity in the central part of the East European Craton (EEC).This approach incorporates the methods of automated lineament analysis and satellite geodesy with the conventional geological mapping analysis. The space tectonic map (space image based) is reconstructed, and morphostructures that are active at the recent and present tectonic stage are delineated by processing the Landsat image mosaic. The direction and rate of horizontal displacement of crustal blocks, which is caused by deep geodynamical processes, are determined using the GPS data. The study is preliminary since only few GPS stations within the EEC have sufficiently long time series of observations.

  • 18. Адушкин В.В., Санина И.А. и др. Исследование неотектонической активности морфоструктур центральной части Восточно-Европейской платформы с использованием дистанционных методов
    Физика Земли, 2014 , No. 2, p. 21-28

    При изучении неотектонической активности центральной части Восточно-Европейской платформы (ВЕП) применен комплексный подход, включающий методы автоматизированного линеаментного анализа и космической геодезии с использованием результатов традиционного геологического картирования. В результате обработки мозаики космоснимков LANSAT построена космотектоническая схема и выделены морфоструктуры, активные на современном и неотектоническом этапе. Данные GPS-наблюдений использованы для определения направления и скорости горизонтального смещения блоков, обусловленного глубинными геодинамическими процессами. Исследования носят предварительный характер из-за недостаточного количества GPS-станций в пределах ВЕП, имеющих продолжительный временной ряд наблюдений.

  • 17. I.A. Sanina et al. Lithospheric structure in the junction zone between megablocks of the East European Craton based on the receiver function data
    Doklady Earth Sciences May 2014, 2014, vol. 456 , p. 618-621

    The present communication provides the first data on the velocity section of the lithosphere down to 250–300 km depth using the receiver function method in the area of Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory, Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IGD RAS).

  • 16. Санина И.А., С.А.Королёв, Г.Л.Косарев, О.Ю.Ризниченко. Строение литосферы в зоне сочленения мегаблоков Восточно-Европейской платформы по данным функции приемника
    ДАН, 2014, vol. 456, No. 3, p. 338–341

    Приведены первые результаты определения скоростного разреза литосферы 250-300 км.

  • 15. Китов И.О., Санина И.А., Непеина К.С., Константиновская Н.Л., Нестеркина М.А. Использование метода согласованного фильтра на малоапертурной сейсмической антенне “Михнево”
    Сейсмические приборы, 2014, vol. 50, No. 3, p. 5-18

    Одна из задач, решаемых малоапертурной сейсмической антенной (МСА) “Михнево”, –создание каталога промышленных взрывов в пределах Восточно-Европейской платформы.Начиная с момента установки антенны в 2004 г., с ее помощью ежегодно обнаруживаетсядо 1000 взрывов разной мощности. Метод формирования лучей, основанный на суммировании приведенных к центральной станции записей индивидуальных каналов сейсмической антенны, значительно повышает отношение сигнал/шум по сравнению с трехкомпонентной станцией и снижает амплитудный порог обнаружения. Это позволяет выделять очень слабые сигналы и значительно увеличивает число обнаруживаемых карьерных взрывов. Для сигналов с малым отношением сигнал/шум даже разрешающей способности антенны недостаточно для однозначной идентификации источника. Метод согласованного фильтра с шаблонными волновыми формами, тщательно выбранными из десятилетнего архива цифровых записей МСА “Михнево”, позволяет создать кросскорреляционные алгоритмы, обладающие исключительно высокой точностью относительной локации и идентификации карьеров. Это делает возможным создание эффективной системы автоматической обработки данных и выпуска точного каталога промышленных взрывов.

  • 14. Valery Shuvalov, Rainer Gersonde Constraints on interpretation of the Eltanin impact from numerical simulations
    Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 2014, vol. 49 , p. 1171-1185

    The results of numerical simulations of the Eltanin impact are combined with the available geological data in order to reconstruct the impact dynamics and to get some constraints on the impact parameters. Numerical simulations show that the Eltanin projectile size should be less than 2 km for a 45° oblique impact and less than 1.5 km for a vertical impact. On the other hand, we demonstrate that the projectile diameter cannot be considerably smaller than 1 km; otherwise, the impact-induced water flow cannot transport eroded sediments across large distances. The maximum displacement approximately equals the water crater radius and rapidly decreases with increasing distances. Numerical simulations also show that ejecta deposits strongly depend on impact angle and projectile size and, therefore, cannot be used for reliable estimates of the initial projectile mass. The initial amplitudes of tsunami-like waves are estimated. The presence of clay-rich sediments, typical for the abyssal basins in cores PS2709 and PS2708 on the Freeden Seamounts (Bellingshausen Sea, Southern Ocean) combined with numerical data allow us to suggest a probable point of impact to the east of the seamounts. The results do not exclude the possibility that a crater in the ocean bottom may exist, but such a structure has not been found yet.

  • 13. Valery Shuvalov, Ekkehard Kührt, Kai Wünnemann Impact induced erosion of hot and dense atmospheres
    Planetary and Space Science Journal, 2014, vol. 98 , p. 120-127

    Previous investigations of impact-induced atmospheric erosion considered mainly crater-forming impacts. Simple estimates show that in dense primary planetary atmospheres, considerable erosion could be induced by aerial bursts resulting from impacts of 1-10 km sized projectiles. Numerical simulations of cometary and asteroidal impacts (striking unmodified and crater-forming, impacting as fragmented meteorites, or causing aerial bursts) into dense (200 bar) atmospheres of different temperatures have been performed to obtain the amount of atmospheric erosion. The results have been approximated by simple analytical formulae.

  • 12. Turrini D., Svetsov V. The formation of Jupiter, the Jovian Early Bombardment and the delivery of water to the Asteroid Belt
    Life, 2014 , p. 4-34

    The asteroid (4) Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and collisional evolution of Vesta. In particular, we argue that the observational data are best reproduced if the bulk of the impactors was represented by 1-2 km wide planetesimals and if Jupiter underwent a limited (a fraction of au) displacement.

  • 10. Popel S.I., Adushkin V.V., Golub' A.P. Nanoscale particles in technological processes of benefication
    Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 2014, vol. 5 , p. 458-465

    Background: Cavitation is a rather common and important effect in the processes of destruction of nano- and microscale particles in natural and technological processes. A possible cavitation disintegration of polymineral nano- and microparticles, which are placed into a liquid, as a result of the interaction of the particles with collapsed cavitation bubbles is considered. The emphasis is put on the cavitation processes on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles, which is suitable for the description of the real situations. Results: The results are illustrated for the minerals that are most abundant in gold ore. The bubbles are generated by shock loading of the liquid heated to the boiling temperature. Possibilities of cavitation separation of nano- and microscale monomineral fractions from polymineral nano- and microparticles and of the use of cavitation for beneficiation are demonstrated. Conclusion: The cavitation disintegration mechanism is important because the availability of high-grade deposits in the process of mining and production of noble metals is decreasing. This demands for an enhancement of the efficiency in developing low-grade deposits and in reprocessing ore dumps and tailings, which contain a certain amount of noble metals in the form of finely disseminated fractions. The cavitation processes occuring on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles are occasionally more effective than the bulk cavitation processes that were considered earlier.

  • 9. S.I. Popel , A.P. Golub’ et al. On the distributions of photoelectrons over the illuminated part of the Moon
    JETP Letters April 2014, 2014, vol. 99 , p. 115-120

    The existing view of the photoemission properties of lunar regolith does not provide the unambiguous treatment of the parameters and distributions of photoelectrons over the illuminated part of the Moon. This is indicated by the present calculations of the density, temperature, and distribution function of photoelectrons. It has been demonstrated that the quantum yield of lunar regolith is the main parameter determining the generation of photoelectrons near the surface of the Moon. At present, this parameter is determined with significant uncertainty. The measurement of the quantum yield of regolith directly on the surface of the Moon has been proposed as a variant of the solution of the indicated problem. Such measurements can be performed in the framework of future lunar missions.

  • 8. Попель С.И., Голубь А.П., Извекова Ю.Н., Афонин В.В., Дольников Г.Г., Захаров А.В., Зеленый Л.М., Лисин Е.А., Петров О.Ф. К вопросу о распределениях фотоэлектронов над освещенной частью Луны
    Письма в ЖЭТФ, 2014, vol. 99, No. 3, p. 131-137

    Существующие представления о фотоэмиссионных свойствах лунного реголита не дают однозначной трактовки относительно параметров и распределений фотоэлектронов над освещенной частью Луны. На это указывают проведенные в данной работе вычисления концентрации, температуры и функции распределения фотоэлектронов. Продемонстрировано, что основным параметром, влияющим на генерацию фотоэлектронов у поверхности Луны, является квантовый выход лунного реголита. На сегодняшний день имеется весьма существенная неоднозначность в определении его величины. В качестве варианта решения указанной проблемы предлагается проведение экспериментов по измерению квантового выхода реголита непосредственно на поверхности Луны. Последнее может быть осуществлено в рамках будущих лунных миссий.

  • 7. Emelyanenko V., Naroenkov S., Jenniskens P., Popova O. The Orbit and Dynamical Evolution of the Chelyabinsk Object
    Meteoritics & Planetary Science 49, 2014 , p. 2169–2174

    The orbit of the Chelyabinsk object is calculated, applying the least-squares method directly to astrometric positions. The dynamical evolution of this object in the past is studied by integrating equations of motion for particles with orbits from the confidence region. It is found that the majority of the Chelyabinsk clones reach the near-Sun state. 67 percent of these objects have collisions with the Sun for 15 Myr in our numerical simulations. The distribution of minimum solar distances shows that the most probable time for the encounters of the Chelyabinsk object with the Sun lies in the interval from -0.8 Myr to -2 Myr. This is consistent with the estimate of a cosmic ray exposure age of 1.2 Myr (Popova et al 2013). A parent body of the Chelyabinsk object should experience strong tidal and thermal effects at this time. The possible association of the Chelyabinsk object with 86039 (1999 NC43) and 2008 DJ is discussed.

  • 6. Golub' A.P., Kozlov S.I., Tasenko S.V. Criteria of applicability of a gas-dynamic approximation of a continuous medium to describing the dispersion of combustion products of rocket propellants
    Cosmic Research, 2014, vol. 52, No. 3, p. 185-188

    Two criteria for the applicability of a gas-dynamic approximation of continuous medium to describing the dispersion of combustion products of rocket propellants at high altitudes are formulated. Related numerical estimates are given for different launch vehicles and one upper stage with fairly extended boost phases. The use of a continuous medium approximation is shown to have a clear altitude restriction.

  • 5. Голубь А.П., Козлов С.И., Тасенко С.В. Критерии применимости газодинамического приближения сплошной среды к описанию разлета продуктов сгорания ракетных топлив
    Космические исследования, 2014 , No. 3, p. 197

    Сформулированы два критерия применимости газодинамического приближения сплошной среды к описанию разлета продуктов сгорания ракетных топлив на больших высотах. Приведены численные оценки по ним для различных ракет-носителей и одного разгонного блока, имеющих достаточно протяженные активные участки полета. Показано, что использование приближения сплошной среды имеет четкое ограничение по высоте.

  • Kozlov S.I., Lyakhov A.N., Bekker S.Z. Key principles of constructing probabilistic statistical ionosphere models for the radiowave propagation problems
    Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 2014, vol. 54, No. 6, p. 750-762

    It is demonstrated that it is required to create probabilistic statistical models of the ionosphere for calculating radio propagation in a wide frequency range. This, in fact, presents a new type of ionospheric modeling. These models are classified into pure statistical and deterministic-stochastic. We describe the key principles of building such models, present some examples of their construction, and discuss some difficulties arising from them.

  • Беккер С.З., Козлов С.И., Ляхов А.Н Основные принципы построения вероятностно-статистических моделей ионосферы для решения задач распространения радиоволн
    Геомагнетизм и аэрономия, 2014 , No. 6, p. 767

    Обоснована необходимость разработки вероятностно-статистических моделей ионосферы для расчета распространения радиоволн широкого диапазона частот, относящихся, по сути, к новому типу ионосферного моделирования. Рассмотрены основные принципы построения таких моделей, которые разделяются на чисто статистические и детерминировано-вероятностные. Приведены примеры разработки моделей и отмечены некоторые трудности при их создании.

  • 2. Krasnoshchekov D, Polishchuk, V. k-Order alpha-hulls and alpha-shapes
    Information Processing Letters, 2014 , No. 1, p. 76-83

    We introduce order-k α-hulls and α-shapes - generalizations of α-hulls and α-shapes. Being also a generalization of k-hull (known in statistics as ''k-depth contour''), order-k α-hull provides a link between shape reconstruction and statistical depth. As a generalization of α-hull, order-k α-hull gives a robust shape estimation by ignoring locally up to k outliers in a point set. Order-k α-shape produces an ''inner'' shape of the set, with the amount of ''digging'' into the points controlled by k. As a generalization of k-hull, order-k α-hull is capable of determining ''deep'' points amidst samples from a multimodal distribution: it correctly identifies points which lie outside clusters of samples. The order-k α-hulls and α-shapes are related to order-k Voronoi diagrams in the same way in which α-hulls and α-shapes are related to Voronoi diagrams. This implies that order-k α-hull and α-shape can be readily built from order-k Voronoi diagram, and that the number of different order-k α-shapes for all possible values of α is proportional to the complexity of order-k Voronoi diagram.

  • 1. I.O. Kitov, I.A. Sanina, K.S. Nepeina, N.L. Konstantinovskaya Using a matched-filter technique at the Mikhnevo small-aperture seismic array
    Seismic Instruments, 2014, vol. 51 , p. 191-200

    The Mikhnevo small-aperture array (SAA) was designed as an instrument for various regional seismic studies, including the compilation of a detailed catalogue of industrial blasts in the East European craton. This array includes 12 observation points arranged in three circles and equipped with SM3-KV shortperiod seismometers. The Institute of Geospheres Dynamics launched the array in 2004, and since that time it has been detecting up to 1000 industrial blasts per year. The Mikhnevo SAA uses beam formation for array processing. The stacking of individual waveforms reduced to a reference point allows the suppression of microseismic noise and improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) relative to a three-component station. An improved SNR for a given signal is equivalent to a reduced detection threshold: much weaker signals can be detected with the use of a beam-formation technique. In turn, much more signals from small industrial explosions are detected. Weak signals are difficult to identify because of the higher uncertainty in the estimates of such characteristics as azimuth, slowness, and amplitude. Having a ten-year catalog of industrial blasts and the archive of raw digital records for this period, we apply a waveform cross-correlation (matched filter) technique, which has an extremely high relative location accuracy and thus identification capability. We have created a set of master events with relevant waveform templates for automatic data processing and creation of an accurate catalogue of industrial blasts.

Публикации в периодических изданиях, включенных в Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)